ISSN 2398-2950      

Liver: lipidosis

ffelis

Synonym(s): Hepatic lipidosis, HL


Introduction

  • Accumulation of fat in >50% of hepatocytes.
  • Cause: idiopathic, secondary to systemic illness.
  • Signs: anorexia, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, weight loss.
  • Diagnosis: liver biopsy including fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • Prognosis: fair-good, reversible if underlying disease controlled.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Idiopathic - between 1-50% of reported cases.
  • 50-98% of cases reported secondary to systemic disease, eg neoplasia, diabetes mellitus  Diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism   Hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Syndrome characterized by hepatocellular lipid accumulation, intrahepatic cholestasis and abnormal hepatic function.
  • Pathophysiology incompletely understood and is likely due to multiple mechanisms including:
    • Chronic overnutrition and excess caloric intake leading to increased hepatic triglyceride content.
    • Increased mobilization of fat from peripheral stores Hyperlipidemia overwhelms hepatic fat utilization and/or mobilization capacity.
      • Increased hormone sensitive lipase activity (via increased levels of noradrenaline, adrenaline, cortisol, growth hormone, glucagon and thyroxine) promotes lipolysis.
      • Decreased rate of fatty acid oxidation.
      • Increased hepatic fat synthesis.
      • Decreased mobilization of fat from liver as lipoproteins.
    • Relative carnitine deficiency - carnitine is required for fatty acid transport into and out of hepatocytes.
    • Resistance to insulin activity (hence reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, which cause lipid uptake and reduced inhibition of hormone sensitive lipase).
    • Protein-calorie malnutrition.
    • Nutrient deficiencies (taurine, arginine, methionine, cysteine, vitamin K1 and B-vitamins).

Predisposing factors

General

  • Caused by illness, change in diet, environmental factors and stress (eg boarding cattery stay, introduction of new cats to household).

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Armstrong P J, Blanchard G (2009) Hepatic lipidosis in cats. Vet Clin North Am Sm Anim 39 (3), 599-616 PubMed.
  • Centre S A (2005) Feline hepatic lipidosis. Vet Clin North Am Sm Anim 35 (1), 225-269 PubMed.
  • Chastain C B, Panciera D, Waters C (2000) Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Sm Anim Clin Endocrinol Sept-Dec 10 (3), 10.
  • Griffin B (2000) Feline hepatic lipidosis: pathophysiology, clinical signs and diagnosis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 22 (9), 847-858 VetMedResource.
  • Griffin B (2000) Feline hepatic lipidosis: treatment recommendations. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 22 (10), 910-922 VetMedResource.
  • Center S A (1999) Chronic liver disease - current concepts of disease mechanisms. JSAP 40 (3), 106-114 PubMed.
  • Willard M D, Weeks B R, Johnson M (1999) Fine needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease. J Fel Med Surg (4), 215-220 PubMed.
  • Dimski D S (1997) Feline hepatic lipidosis. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) 12 (1), 28-33 PubMed.
  • Akol K G, Washabau R J, Saunders H M et al (1993) Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. JVIM (4), 205-9 PubMed.
  • Center S, Crawford M, Guida J et al (1993) A retrospective study of 77 cats with severe hepatic lipidosis: 1975-1990​. JVIM (6), 349-59 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Holan K M (2008) Feline hepatic lipidosis. In: Kirks's Current Veterinary Therapy XIV Small Animal Practice, Ed Bonagura J, Twedt D, Missouri, Elsevier Saunders. pp 570-575.

Related Images

RELATED ARTICLES

Amoxicillin

Ampicillin

Anemia: immune-mediated hemolytic

Bile duct: disease

Biopsy: hepatic

Blood biochemistry: alanine aminotransferase (SGPT, ALT)

Blood biochemistry: albumin

Blood biochemistry: alkaline phosphatase

Blood biochemistry: ammonia

Blood biochemistry: aspartate aminotransferase

Blood biochemistry: bile acid

Blood biochemistry: chloride

Blood biochemistry: cholesterol

Blood biochemistry: creatinine

Blood biochemistry: gamma glutamyl transferase

Blood biochemistry: glucose

Blood biochemistry: magnesium

Blood biochemistry: phosphate

Blood biochemistry: potassium

Blood biochemistry: total bilirubin

Blood biochemistry: total globulin

Blood biochemistry: total protein

Blood biochemistry: urea

Blood biochemistry: vitamin B12

Computed tomography: abdomen

Cyproheptadine

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus: other considerations

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diazepam

Esophagostomy feeding tube placement

Fat

Feline infectious peritonitis

Feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) test

Fluid therapy: for electrolyte abnormality

Gastrostomy: percutaneous tube (endoscopic)

Hematology: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Hematology: leucogram

Hematology: packed cell volume

Hematology: prothrombin time

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hyperadrenocorticism

Hyperlipidemia

Hyperthyroidism

Hypokalemia

Hypomagnesemia

Hypophosphatemia

Hypoproteinemia

Inflammatory bowel disease: overview

Lactulose

L-carnitine

Liver function assessment

Liver: cholangitis

Liver: chronic disease

Liver: primary hepatic neoplasia

Liver: toxic hepatitis

Maropitant citrate

Metoclopramide

Nasoesophageal intubation

Neomycin

Nutrition: disease modulation

Obesity

Ondansetron

Pancreatitis

Potassium chloride / gluconate

Radiography: abdomen

S-adenosylmethionine

Taurine

Ultrasonography: liver

Urinalysis: ketone

Urinalysis: specific gravity

Vitamin E

Vomiting

WSAVA Liver Diseases Guidelines

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code