Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Inguinal hernia

Contributor(s): Joseph Harari

Introduction

  • Mostly in females, occasional inguinoscrotal hernia in the males.
  • Usually acquired in middle-age, particularly after pregnancy, may also occur after trauma causing abdominal compression.
  • Cause: pathologically enlarged inguinal canal, delineated by the external abdominal oblique muscle externally and the rectus and internal abdominal oblique muscles internally.
  • Signs: presents as a fluctuating mass in the inguinal (or scrotal) region that can often be gently reduced in the uncomplicated case.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, radiography, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: repaired by partial closure of the opening in the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique muscle with permanent sutures. Intestinal and bladder involvement are indications for immediate surgical repair. Gravid uteri may be managed until full term, at which point Caesarean section can be undertaken through the hernia to allow repair at that time.
  • Prognosis: complications include gravid uterine herniation, strangulation of intestine and incarceration of the bladder.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Usually an acquired problem in the middle-aged female, particularly after pregnancy, but may also be encountered after a traumatic incident causing abdominal compression.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Pregnancy.
  • Entirety.

Pathophysiology

  • Usually an acquired problem in the middle-aged female, particularly after pregnancy, but may also be encountered after a traumatic incident causing abdominal compression.
  • Herniation occurs through a pathologically-enlarged inguinal canal which is normally delineated by the external abdominal oblique muscle externally and the rectus and internal abdominal oblique muscles internally.
  • Herniation occurs through a pathologically-enlarged inguinal canal which is normally delineated by the external abdominal oblique muscle externally and the rectus and internal abdominal oblique muscles internally.
  • Herniation (may)   →   strangulation or incarceration of abdominal organs, eg small intestine, bladder, gravid uterus.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Waldron D R, Hedlund C S, Pechman R (1986) Abdominal hernias in dogs and cats - a review of 24 cases. JAAHA 22 (6), 817-823 VetMedResource.
  • Wright J G (1963) The surgery of the inguinal canal in animals. Vet Rec 75, 1352-1356.


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