Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Fibrosarcoma

Contributor(s): William Brewer Jr, Jo Morris, Isabelle Desmas-Bazelle

Introduction

  • Most common skin tumor in the cat in some surveys.
  • Subset of sarcomas Sarcoma.
  • Can occur at sites other than the skin - nasal and oral cavities, bone, spleen, eye.
  • Cause: neoplastic proliferation of connective tissue.
  • May be at injection/vaccination site Feline injection-site associated sarcoma in USA - between scapula, femoral area/hind leg.
  • Signs: skin mass.
  • Diagnosis: histopathology.
  • Treatment: radical surgical excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be indicated in some cases.
  • Prognosis: good if compartmental resection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Can be FeSV associated in the USA (multicentric fibrosarcomas Feline sarcoma virus). Young cats, usually <3 years.
  • May be associated with vaccination in USA, especially FeLV Leukemia  and rabies Rabies  inactivated vaccines.
  • Intraocular sarcoma may develop after trauma or chronic uveitis Anterior uvea: traumatic uveitis.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Old age.

Specific

  • FeLV, rabies and other inactivated vaccination in USA.
  • Multiple vaccinations at same site in USA.
  • Trauma to eye for ocular sarcomas.
  • FeLV positivity for multicentric FeSV-induced tumors.

Pathophysiology

  • Usually slow growing connective tissue tumors, slow to metastasize to lungs or other sites (usually hematogenous spread).
  • Vaccination associated tumors may be more aggressive and more prone to local recurrence.
  • Slow growing mass in dermis/subcutis - local problem only, low rate of metastasis to lungs, other sites. Pre-malignant inflammatory reaction.
  • Highly active, immunogenic, adjuvant in vaccine (particularly aluminum salts), any types of injections, or foreign material (microchips) may stimulate chronic, local inflammatory and immunological reaction - predisposes to neoplastic transformation.
  • High concentrations of antigen produced by multiple vaccinations at one site may play a role.

Timecourse

  • Prolonged - months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Weigand C M & Brewer W G (1996) Vaccination-site sarcomas in cats. Comp Cont Ed 18 (8), 869-875 VetMedResource.
  • Esplin D G, McGill L D, Meininger A C et al (1993) Postvaccination sarcomas in cats. JAVMA 202 (8), 1245-1247 PubMed.
  • Hendrick M J, Goldschmidt M H, Shofer F S et al (1992) Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat: epidemiology and electron probe microanalytical identification of aluminium. Cancer Research 52 (19), 5391-5394 PubMed.
  • Miller M A, Nelson S L, Turk J R (1991) Cutaneous neoplasia in 340 cats. Veterinary Pathology 28 (5), 389-395 PubMed.
  • Dubielzig R R, Everitt J, Shadduck J A et al (1990) Clinical and morphologic features of post-traumatic ocular sarcomas in cats. Veterinary Pathology 27 (1), 62-65 PubMed.
  • Susaneck S J (1983) Feline skin tumours. Comp Cont Ed (4), 251-258 VetMedResource.
  • Macy D W & Reynolds H A (1981) The incidence, characteristics and clinical management of skin tumors of cats. JAAHA 17 (6), 1026-1034 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Withrow S J, Vail D M, Page R L (2013) Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 5th ed, Elsevier.  
  • Lana S E and Ogilvie G K (1997) Clincal perspectives on vaccine-associated sarcomas. In: Consultations in feline medicine. 3rd Edition Eds W R August. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp 541-545.
  • Carpenter J L, Andrews L K and Holzworth J (1987) Fibroma and Fibrosarcoma. In: Holzworth J Eds Diseases of the Cat. Medicine and Surgery. W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp 417-421.


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