Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Feline sarcoid

Synonym(s): Fibropapilloma

Contributor(s): David Godfrey, John Munday

Introduction

  • Cause: cross-species infection by feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus which is a bovine papillomavirus.
  • Very rare disease, even in cats that have contact with cattle.
  • Signs: exophytic (expanding) mass typically on the lips and nasal philtrum although also reported on the tail and the ears.
  • Firm nodules firm that are up to 3 cm in diameter and can have an ulcerated surface.
  • Diagnosis: cytology may enable a diagnosis of a fibroblastic neoplasm.
  • Histology with molecular testing may be required for a definitive diagnosis.
  • Treatment: surgical excision or cryotherapy.
  • Prognosis: often recur after surgery and guarded prognosis for sarcoids that cannot be excised without wide surgical margins.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Infection is caused by feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus which has a bovine definitive host.
  • Infectious viral particles are only produced when the virus infects cattle.
  • The virus is shed from cattle and gains access to the dermis of a cat. Whether this is from biting insects or infection of scratches on the skin is currently unknown.

Predisposing factors

General

  • This disease has not been reported in cats that have not had access to cattle.
  • Fighting injuries may predispose to the development of disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Once the virus gains access to the dermis it stimulates fibroblast proliferation.
  • The proliferation is infiltrative making excision difficult.
  • Metastasis is not reported.
  • Clinical effects are due to damage of underlying structures by the infiltrating cells, the presence of the mass interfering with function, and possibly secondary infection of the ulcerated surface.

Timecourse

  • The time between infection and sarcoid formation is unknown.
  • Feline sarcoids generally grow slowly.

Epidemiology

  • As the causative papillomavirus has a bovine definitive host, contact with cattle appears to be essential for lesion development.
  • Very rare disease even in cats that have regular contact with cattle.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Munday J S (2014) Papillomaviruses in felids. Vet J 199 (3), 340-347 PubMed.
  • Munday J S, Knight C G (2010) Amplification of feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus DNA sequences from bovine skin. Vet Dermatol 21 (4), 341-344 PubMed.
  • Munday J S, Knight C G, Howe L (2010) The same papillomavirus is present in feline sarcoids from North America and New Zealand but not in any non-sarcoid feline samples. J Vet Diagn Invest 22 (1), 97-100 PubMed.
  • Teifke J P, Kidney B A, Löhr C V et al (2003) Detection of papillomavirus-DNA in mesenchymal tumour cells and not in the hyperplastic epithelium of feline sarcoids. Vet Dermatol 14 (1), 47-56 PubMed.
  • Schulman F Y, Krafft A E, Janczewski T (2001) Feline cutaneous fibropapillomas: clinicopathologic findings and association with papillomavirus infection. Vet Pathol 38 (3), 291-296 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Gross T L, Ihrke P J, Walder E J (2005) Skin diseases of the dog and cat: clinical and histopathologic diagnosis. 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom.


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