ISSN 2398-2950      

Feline immunodeficiency virus disease

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Synonym(s): FIV


Introduction

  • Cause: feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Feline immunodeficiency virus.
  • Signs: primary disease (lymphadenopathy, systemic illness); secondary disease (immunodeficiency diseases), eg chronic stomatitis, diarrhea, skin disease and opportunistic infections.
  • Diagnosis: ELISA Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), rapid immunomigration, Western blot, virus isolation.
  • Treatment: drugs for secondary illnesses, eg antibiotics; short-term corticosteroids, specific anti-retroviral drugs rarely used.
  • Prognosis: depends on response of opportunistic and secondary diseases to treatment. Often quite good in short to medium-term.
    Print off the Owner factsheet on FIV Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • FIV - species specific retrovirus; has many similarities to HIV but poses no public health risk.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Older male cats more likely to be infected.

Specific

  • FeLV Feline leukemia virus disease - primary disease caused by FIV is worse if cat already infected with FeLV. No statistical link between prevalence of the two infections suggests that they act independently.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection with virus   →   viremia   →   lymphadenopathy, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, followed by a quiescent phase and then a steady decline in T helper cells (CD4+)   →   immunodeficiency.

Timecourse

  • Once infected, cats do not eliminate virus.
  • FIV positive, cats can live, in apparent good health, for years.

Epidemiology

  • Virus spread by biting, also possibly in utero.
  • More commonly diagnosed in sick cats than healthy.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Little S, Levy J, Hartmann K, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Hosie M, Olah G, Denis K S (2020) 2020 AAFP Feline Retrovirus Testing and Management Guidelines. J Feline Med Surg 1, 5-30 (Full Article).
  • Harrus S, Klement E, Aroch I et al (2002) Retrospective study of 46 cases of feline haemobartonellosis in Israel and their relationships with FeLV and FIV infections. Vet Rec 151 (3), 82-85 PubMed.
  • Hartmann K, Werner R M, Egberink H et al (2001) Comparison of six in-house tests for the rapid diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukaemia virus infections. Vet Rec 149 (11), 317-320 PubMed.
  • Lappin M R (2000) Feline infectious uveitis. J Feline Med and Surg (3), 159-163 PubMed.
  • Hughes M S, Ball N W, Love D N et al (1999) Disseminated Mycobacterium genavensen infection in a FIV-positive cat. J Feline Med and Surg (1), 23-29 PubMed.
  • Heider H J, Pox C, Loesenbeck G & Egberink H (1998) Ophthalmological findings in association with different virus infections in the cat. JSAP (2), 35-42 VetMedResource.
  • Nowotny N, Uthman A, Haas O A et al (1995) Is it possible to catch leukaemia from a cat? The Lancet 346 (8969), 252-253 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hopper C D, Sparkes A H, Harbour D A (1994) Feline immunodeficiency virus. In: Feline Medicine and Therapeutics.2nd Edn. Ed Chandler E A, Gaskell C J, Gaskell R M. Blackwell Science, Oxford OX2 OEL, UK. pp 488-505.
  • McCaw D L (1994) Advances in therapy for retroviral infections. In: Consultations in Feline Internal Medicine 2. Ed: August J R pp 21-25.
  • Shelton G H (1994) Management of the feline immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. In: Consultations in Feline Internal Medicine 2. Ed: August J R. pp 27-31.

Related Images

RELATED ARTICLES

2020 AAFP Feline Retrovirus Testing and Management Guidelines

Abscess

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Airway abscessation

Anemia: immune-mediated hemolytic

Anterior uvea: traumatic uveitis

Aspergillosis

Axillary wound

Bacterial skin disease: overview

Borna virus infection: Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis

Cat pox disease

Cat pox virus

Cerebellum: hypoplasia (feline panleukopenia related)

Conjunctivitis

Cryptococcosis

Deep pyoderma

Demodex cati

Diarrhea: dietary

Diarrhea: parasites

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Eye: chorioretinitis

Feline immunodeficiency virus

Feline infectious anemia

Feline infectious peritonitis

Feline leukemia virus disease

FIV test

Giardia spp

Gingivitis and stomatitis

Glaucoma

Glomerulonephritis

Haw's syndrome

Hematology: platelet count

Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus: congenital

Hyphema

Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia

Infectious infertility in the female

Kidney: acute renal failure

Lymphoproliferative disease

Mouth: squamous cell carcinoma

Mycobacterium bovis

Mycobacterium lepraemurium

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Myeloid leukemia

Myopathies

Nocardiosis

Notoedric mange

Optic neuritis

Parasitic skin disease: overview

Penis and sheath: clinical examination

Pharyngitis / tonsillitis

Pneumonia

Prednisolone

Pseudomonas spp

Pyothorax

Pyrexia: overview

Respiratory fungal disease

Rhinitis

Seizures

Skin: allergic contact dermatitis

Skin: demodectic mange

Skin: dermatophytosis

Skin: irritant contact dermatitis

Skin: pemphigus vulgaris

Skin: sarcoptic mange

Spinal lymphoma

Spine: arachnoid cyst

Spongiform encephalopathy

Therapeutics: antimicrobial drug

Thrombocytopenia

Toxoplasmosis

Tuberculosis

Uveitis: viral

Viral-induced upper respiratory tract disease

Weight loss

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code