Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Cognitive dysfunction syndrome

Synonym(s): CDS, feline dementia, feline senility, cognitive decline, age-related behavior problems

Contributor(s): Jon Bowen, Danielle Gunn-Moore, Petra A Mertens

Introduction

  • Cognitive dysfunction is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that impairs memory and learning.
  • Clinical signs and immuno-histopathological findings of CDS resemble forms of dementia seen in Alzheimer patients (Dementia Alzheimers Type (DAT)).
  • CDS can manifest itself in multiple unspecific clinical signs that increase in quantity and severity over time in affected cats.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Cognitive dysfunction Cognitive dysfunction syndrome to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Beta amyloid deposition (with localized inflammatory effects). Beta amyloid is neurotoxic.
  • Increased number of free radicals and impaired antioxidant mechanism leading to increased oxidative damage.
  • Reduction in cerebral blood flow (arteriosclerosis, cerebral ischemia, chronic hypoxia (reduced cardiac function)).
  • Decreased number of neurons (cell death due to hypoxia and neurotoxicity effects) and increase of glial cells.
  • Decreased neurotransmitter concentration (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine).
  • Increased monoamine oxidase B concentration and decreased dopamine concentration.
  • Anemia.
  • Hypertension (due to eg kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, etc).

Epidemiology

  • More than one quarter of the felines seen in veterinary practices belong to the population of cats that are at risk to develop CDS (7 years of age or older).
  • Approximately 50% of 15 year old cats show signs of CDS.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gunn-Moore D A, Moffat K, Christie L-A et al (2007) Cognitive dysfunction and the neurobiology of aging in cats. JSAP 48 (10), 546-553 PubMed.
  • Gunn-Moore D A, McVee J, Bradshaw J M et al (2006) Beta-Amyloid and hyper-phosphorylated tau deposition in cat brains. J Feline Med Surg (4), 234-242 PubMed.
  • Landsberg G (2006) Therapeutic options for cognitive decline in senior pets. JAAHA 42 (6), 407-413 PubMed.
  • Head E M, Moffat K, Das P et al (2005) Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Tau Phosphorylation in Clinically Characterized Aged Cats. Neurobiol Aging 26 (5), 749-763 PubMed.
  • Head E &  Zicker S C (2004) Nutraceuticals, aging and cognitive dysfunction. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 34 (1), 217-228 PubMed.
  • Moffat K S & Landsberg G M (2003) An investigation of the prevalence of clinical signs of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS) in cats. JAAHA 39, 512.
  • Head E (2001) Brain aging in dogs: Parallels with human brain aging and Alzheimers disease. Veterinary Therapeutics (3), 247-260 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Heath S (2002) Behaviour problems of the geriatric pet. In: Horwitz, Mills D, Heath S (eds) BSAVA Manual of Feline and Feline Behavioural Medicine. British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Organisation(s)


ADDED