Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Eye: intraocular mass

Contributor(s): Dennis E Brooks, David L Williams, James Oliver

Introduction

  • Cause: spontaneous and solitary or part of multisystemic disease process.
  • Signs: change in appearance of eye, pain, visual deficits. 
  • Diagnosis: clinical examination, ultrasonography, cytology, histopathology.
  • Treatment: enucleation, surgical excision, chemotherapy.
  • Prognosis: guarded-poor, often malignant.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Older cats.

Pathophysiology

  • Primary neoplasia:
    • Diffuse iris melanoma Eye: diffuse iris melanoma   Eye: uveal melanoma .
      • Most common primary intraocular neoplasm.
      • Malignant transformation of benign iris melanosis.
      • Malignant with high metastatic rate reported.
    • Feline intraocular sarcoma  Eye: intraocular sarcoma :
      • Usually associated with history of previous intraocular trauma or surgery.
      • Highly malignant.
      • 3 variants: spindle cell, beta lymphoma-associated and osteosarcoma/chondrosarcoma-associated.
    • Ciliary adenoma and adenocarcinoma  Eye: ciliary body adenoma  Eye: adenocarcinoma of ciliary epithelium :
      • Typically arise in pars plicata of ciliary body.
      • Usually slow-growing and metastasis is uncommon.
  • Seconary (metastatic) neoplasia:
    • Lymphoma  Eye: uveal lymphoma :
      • Usually a result of metastasis from neoplasia within abdominal cavity.
      • Bilateral ocular involvement common  Iris: tumor 01 - lymphoma  Iris: tumor 02 - lymphoma  Iris: tumor 03 - lymphoma .
    • Angioinvasive pulmonary carcinoma:
      • Emboli of neoplastic cells from primary pulmonary carcinoma.
      • Choroidal infarction and subsequent retinal degeneration.
  • Neoplasia may also invade globe by spread from contiguous structures, eg squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ota-Kuroki J, Ragsdale J M, Bawa B et al (2014) Intraocular and periocular lymphoma in dogs and cats: a retrospective review of 21 cases (2001-2012). Vet Ophthalmol 17 (6), 389-396 PubMed.
  • Goldfinch N, Argyle D J (2012) Feline lung-digit syndrome: unusual metastatic patterns of primary lung tumours in cats. J Feline Med Surg 14 (3), 202-208 PubMed.
  • Cassotis N J, Dubielzig R R, Gilger B C et al (1999) Angioinvasive pulmonary carcinoma with posterior segment metastasis on four cats. Vet Ophthalmol (2), 125-131 PubMed.
  • Dubielzig R R, Steinberg H, Garvin H et al (1998) Iridociliary epithelial tumours in 100 dogs and 17 cats: a morphological study. Vet Ophthalmol (4), 223-231 PubMed.
  • Kalishman J B, Chappell R, Flood L A et al (1998) A matched observational study of survival in cats with enucleation due to diffuse iris melanoma. Vet Ophthalmol (1), 25-29 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mitchell N & Oliver J (2015) Feline Ophthalmology - The Manual. Servet. ISBN 978-84-16315-11-6.
  • Gould D & McLellan G (2014) BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 3rd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


ADDED