Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Emphysema

Contributor(s): Elizabeth Rozanski, Kim Willoughby

Introduction

  • Disease of lung parenchyma causing permanent damage and anatomical disruption.
  • Dilation and destruction of alveoli distal to the terminal bronchiole.
  • Cause: In cats, usually sequel to bronchial disease causing chronic over-inflation or to repeated attacks of feline asthma Allergic bronchitis.
  • Signs: wheezing, coughing, dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, biopsy.
  • Treatment: bronchodilators, glucocorticoids, antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: guarded.
  • Occasionally sequel to other obstructive lesions resulting in over-inflation.
  • In man, other causes include inhalation or dust.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Obstructive bronchial diseases.

Specific

  • Pulmonary or bronchial neoplasia Lung: pulmonary neoplasia.
  • Congenital bronchial tree malformations (bronchial dysgenesis: a rare developmental disorder).

Pathophysiology

  • Bronchial disease, recurrent asthma attacks or other cause of over-inflation   →   chronic hyperinflation and air trapping   →   destruction of alveolar septa   →   rupture and coalescence of alveoli. This results in:
  • Loss of gas exchange.
  • Loss of lung parenchymal integrity and failure to maintain radial traction on surrounding small airways which worsens obstructive disease.

Timecourse

  • Develops secondary to chronic obstructive airway disease, usually over some months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dye J A (1992) Feline bronchopulmonary disease. Vet Clin N Am -Small An Pract 22 (5), 1187-201 PubMed.
  • LaRue M J, Garlick D S, Lamb C R et al (1990) Bronchial dysgenesis and lobar emphysema in an adult cat. JAVMA 197 (7), 886-8 PubMed.
  • Moise N S, Weidenkeller D, Yeager A E et al (1989) Clinical, radiographic and bronchocytologic features of cats with bronchial disease - 65 cases (1980-1986). JAVMA 194 (10), 1467-73 PubMed.
  • Moses B L & Spaulding G L (1985) Chronic bronchial disease in the cat. Vet Clin N Am - Small An Pract 15 (5), 929-48 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Stepien R L (1998) Specific feline cardiopulmonary conditions. In: Manual of Small Animal Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Surgery. Eds: V L Fuentes & S Swift. Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 245-261. ISBN 0 905214 33 1.
  • Henik R A & Yeager R E (1994) Bronchopulmonary diseases. In: The Cat - diseases and Clinical Management. 2nd Ed. Ed: R G Sherding. New York: Churchill Livingston pp 245-261. ISBN 0 443 08879 9.


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