Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Elbow: congenital luxation

Contributor(s): Noel Fitzpatrick

Introduction

  • Very rare in cats.
  • Cause: congenital developmental abnormality.
  • 2 types:
    • Lateral luxation of ulna.
    • Caudolateral luxation of radial head.
  • Treatment: closed reduction if possible, early surgical intervention if not.
  • Prognosis: worse when surgery required or in neglected cases.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Congenital developmental anomaly.

Pathophysiology

Two forms

  • Lateral luxation of ulna:
    • 90° outward rotation proximally   →  SEVERE DISABILITY.
    • Trochlear notch and articular process disarticulated from humerus and displacement of biceps (?triceps) tendon.
  • Caudolateral luxation of radial head  →  
    • Disability not as severe because of normal relationship between humerus and ulna.
    • Proximal medial epiphysis often deformed (either primarily or secondarily to absence of normal weight bearing forces).
  • Unknown - ?failure of development of medial collateral and annular ligaments and hypertrophy of lateral collateral ligament allowing outward rotation of ulna to occur.
  • Limb angulation changes seen may be secondary due to abnormal distribution of weight bearing surfaces.
  • Long-standing cases - articular surface of proximal radius deformed due to lack of contact with humerus.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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