Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Deep pyoderma

Contributor(s): Ian Mason, David Scarff, David Godfrey

Introduction

  • Bacterial infection affecting the dermis and possibly the subcutis, sometimes causing systemic illness; lesions can be local or generalized.
  • Cause: predisposed by immunosuppression, eg FeLV or FIV infection demodicosis   Demodectic mange, endocrinopathy, hypersensitvity, trauma, may be idiopathic.
  • Now recognized that EGC Eosinophilic granuloma complex disease is often complicated by bacterial infections.
  • Signs: papules, pustules, furuncles, granulomas, ulcers, discharging sinuses; bacterial infection of dermal and subcuticular tissues; scarring where lesions have healed.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, cytology, histopathology, bacteriology.
  • Treatment: identification of cause, antimicrobial / antibiotic therapy.
  • Prognosis: depends on cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Localized furunculosis

  • Feline acne - usually idiopathic.

Generalized furunculosis

  • Sequel to folliculitis.
  • Secondary to bacterial, eg staphylococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Pasteurella multocida  Pasteurella multocida.

Anaerobic cellulitis

  • Trauma, eg bites, puncture wounds. Cat bite abcess.
  • Foreign body.
  • Surgery.
  • Burns Burns.
  • Neoplasia Skin: neoplasia.
  • Indwelling catheter.

Subcutaneous abscesses

  • Bite wounds.

Eosinophilic granuloma or ulcer

Bacterial pseudomycetoma

  • Trauma, eg bite wounds.
  • Foreign body.
  • Usually coagulase-positive staphylococci.
  • Multiple organisms may be involved, eg Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp, Streptococcus spp, and Actinobacillus spp.

Mycobacterial granuloma

Actinomycosis

Actinobacillosis

  • Rare, Actinobacillus lignieresii.

Nocardiosis

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Superficial pyoderma  →  deeper into follicles (folliculitis)  →  rupture of follicular wall  →  pyogranulomatous perifolliculitis or furunculosis in dermis and subcutis  →  extension along tissue planes  →  fistulae on surface or cellulitis and panniculitis in subcutaneous and fatty tissues.
  • Bacteria commonly involved include: staphylococci  Staphylococcus sppProteus spp , Pseudomonas spp Pseudomonas sppE. coli  Escherichia coli.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wildermuth B E et al (2011) Response of feline eosinophilic plaques and lip ulcers to amoxicillin trihydrate-clavulanate potassium therapy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Vet Dermatol 22, 521-527 PubMed.
  • Kennis R A, Wolf A M (1999) Chronic bacterial skin infections in cats. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 21 (12), 1108-1115 VetMedResource.
  • Carro T, Pedersen N C, Beaman B L et al (1989) Subcutaneous abscess and arthritis caused by a probable bacterial L-form in cats. JAVMA 194 (11), 1583-8 PubMed.
  • White S D, Ihrke P J, Stannard A A et al (1983) Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis in cats. JAVMA 182 (11), 1218-22 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Miller W H, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Small Animal Dermatology. Philadelphia, W B Saunders. pp 198-214. ISBN 978-1-4160-0028-0 (the standard dermatology text).


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