Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Coccidioidomycosis

Synonym(s): San Joaquin Valley Fever, Valley Fever

Contributor(s): Susan Dawson, Rhea Morgan

Introduction

  • Cause:cutaneous and systemic fungal infection caused by Coccidioides immitis Coccidioides immitis.
  • Endemic in the lower Sonoran life zone of the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America and South America.
  • Organism is present in the soil; arthroconidia of the mycelial form are highly infectious.
  • Signs: cutaneous lesions, ocular disease, respiratory signs, lameness, occasional neurologic signs.
  • Diagnosis: cytology, serology, histopathology.
  • Treatment: itraconazole Itraconazole, ketoconazole Ketoconazole, fluconazole Fluconazole, lufenuron Lufenuron, amphotericin B Amphotericin B.
  • Prognosis: good for localized cutaneous disease; poor for disseminated disease.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Compromised immune system from other diseases.
  • Most cats in endemic areas may be infected but the majority of infections are sub-clinical.

Specific

  • Living or traveling in an endemic area.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection occurs by inhalation of arthroconidia.
  • The fungus colonizes the lungs, then spreads to regional lymph nodes and other organs of the body.
  • The most common organs affected are skin, lungs, eyes, and bones.
  • Central nervous system involvement is less common than in the dog.

Timecourse

  • Incubation period for the cat is not defined, but may be similar to the dog (1-3 weeks).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bartsch R & Greene R T (1998) Lufenuron in the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Capsule Report 16, 3.
  • Greene R T & Troy G C (1995) Coccidioidomycosis in 48 cats. A retrospective study (1984 - 1993). JVIM (2), 86-91 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Greene RT (1998) Coccidioidomycosis. In: Greene CE (ed) Infectious diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd Ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp.391-398.
  • Taboada J (2002) Systemic mycoses. In: Morgan RV, Bright RN, Swartout MS (eds) Handbook of Small Animal Practice. 4th Ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 2002, pp.1075-1089.


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