ISSN 2398-2950      

Chronic lymphoid leukemia

ffelis

Synonym(s): CLL


Introduction

  • Rare disease in cat, less common than acute lymphoid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Cause: neoplastic transformation and proliferation of late precursor lymphoid cells.
  • Signs: slow progression and mild clinical signs. May be incidental finding.
  • Diagnosis: predominance of mature lymphoid cells in bone marrow and marked mature lymphocytosis. Flow cytometry and/or PARR analysis (PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement) may help for definitive diagnosis.
  • Treatment: supportive, specific cytotoxic agents.
  • Prognosis: reasonable.
Print off the owner factsheet on Feline leukaemia to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • Usually FeLV/FIV negative FeLV test FIV test. However, a high association of FeLV infection and leukemia Leukemia has been reported in Brazil.

Pathophysiology

  • Replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with neoplastic cells   →   myelosuppression   →   anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia   →   secondary infections common.
  • Transformation of late precursor cells   →   proliferation of mature, differentiated cells   →  chronic leukemia  Leukemia  →   less severe cytopenia.
  • Excessive numbers of circulating cells/hyperproteinemia Hypoproteinemia  →   hyperviscosity   →   decreased oxygen transport to capillary beds   →   microthrombi of tumor cells.
  • Production of humoral factors   →   stimulation of osteoclasts   →   hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia: overview of malignancy   →   polyuria/polydypsia   →   renal failure Kidney: chronic kidney disease.

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cristo T G, Biezus G, Noronha L F, Gaspar T, Dal Pont T P, Withoeft J A, Furlan L V, Costa L S, Traverso S D, Casagrande R A (2019) Feline Leukaemia Virus Associated with Leukaemia in Cats in Santa Catarina, Brazil. J Comp Pathol 170,10-21 PubMed.  
  • Campbell M W, Hess P R, Williams L E (2013) Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in the cat: 18 cases (2000-2010). Vet Comp Oncol 11(4), 256-264 PubMed.
  • Weiss D V (2005) Differentiating benign and malignant causes of lymphocytosis in feline bone marrow. J Vet Intern Med 19(6), 855-859 PubMed.
  • Workman H C, Vernau W (2003) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in dogs and cats: the veterinary perspective. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 33(6), 1379-1399 PubMed
  • Darbès J, Majzoub M, Breuer W et al (1998) Large granular lymphocyte leukemia/lymphoma in six cats. Vet Pathol 35 (5), 370-379 PubMed.
  • Schick R O, Murphy C F, Goldschmidt M H (1993) Cutaneous lymphosarcoma and leukemia in a cat. JAVMA 203 (8), 1155-1158 PubMed.

Other Sources of Information

  • Vail D M, Pinkerton M, Young K M (2020) Cancer chemotherapy. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 6th edn. Eds Withrow & MacEwen. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis. pp 729-730. 

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