Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Chlamydia disease

Synonym(s): Chlamydophila felis infection

Contributor(s): Stephen Barr, David Godfrey, Kim Willoughby

Introduction

  • Cause: contagious infection with the intracellular bacterium Chlamydophila felis Chlamydophila felis.
  • Signs: conjunctivitis (very rarely respiratory complications).
  • Diagnosis: detection of the organism using PCR, isolation of bacterium, cytology.
  • Treatment: topical and systemic tetracyclines.
  • Prognosis: good although carrier state may develop.
Print off owners factsheet on Chlamydia disease Chlamydia disease to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Stress-induced reactivation.

Pathophysiology

  • Maternal immunity wanes at 6-8 weeks.
  • Kittens then susceptible to airborne transmission.
  • Conjunctival replication   →   cells degenerate and slough   →   conjunctivitis 5-10 days after exposure.
  • Exudate initially serous but becomes mucopurulent.
  • Carrier state frequently develops and animal sheds chlamydia intermittently from oropharynx and may develop conjunctivitis after stressful episodes.

Timecourse

  • Weeks for acute disease.
  • Years for carrier state.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gruffydd-Jones T, Addie D, Belák S et al (2009) Chlamydophila felis infection: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 11 (7), 605-609 PubMed.
  • Sturgess C P, Gruffydd-Jones T J, Harbour D A et al (2001) Controlled study of the efficacy of clavulanic acid-potentiated amoxycillin in the treatment of Chlamidia psitacci in cats. Vet Rec 149 (3), 73-76 PubMed.
  • Sykes J E, Allen J L, Studdert V P et al (2001) Detection of feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus 1 and Chlamydia psittaci mucosal swabs by multiplex RT-PCR/PCRVet Microbiol 81 (2), 95-108 PubMed.
  • Dawson S, Gaskell R & Jarrett O S (1999) Vaccination in cats - an update. In Practice 21 (2), 71-74 VetMedResource.
  • Sparkes A H, Caney S M A, Sturgess C P et al (1999) The clinical efficacy of topical and systemic therapy for the treatment of feline ocular chlamydiosis. J Feline Med Surg (1), 31-35 PubMed.
  • Sykes J E, Anderson G A, Studdert V P et al (1999) Prevalence of feline Chlamydia psittaci and feline herpesvirus 1 in cats with upper respiratory tract disease. J Vet Intern Med 13 (3), 153-162 PubMed.
  • Sykes J E, Studdert V P & Browning G F (1999) Comparison of the polymerase chain reaction and culture for the detection of feline Chlamydia psittaci in untreated and doxycycline-treated experimentally infected cats. J Vet Intern Med 13 (3), 146-152 PubMed.
  • McDonald M, Willett B J, Jarrett O et al (1998) A comparison of DNA amplification, isolation and serology for the detection of Chlamydia psittaci infection in cats. Vet Rec 143 (4), 97-101 PubMed.
  • Papich M G (1998) Antibacterial drug therapy. Focus on new drugs. Vet Clinics NA 28 (2), 215-231 PubMed.
  • Dorin S E, Miller W W & Goodwin J K (1993) Diagnosing and treating chlamydial conjunctivitis in cats. Vet Med 88 (4), 322-30 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Petersen-Jones S & Crispin S (2002) BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. ISBN 0 905214 54 4


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