ISSN 2398-2950      

Blepharitis

ffelis

Introduction

  • Cause: generalized skin disease, eg parasitic, bacterial, fungal, allergic or immune mediated.
  • Signs: inflamed eyelids, ocular discharge.
  • Diagnosis: signs, bacteriology, skin scraping, Wood's lamp examination.
  • Treatment: often need systemic antibiotics +/- warm compresses.
  • Prognosis: self-trauma is common complication; Staphylococcal blepharitis can be difficult to resolve.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Parasitic

Fungal infection

Bacterial

  • Bacterial blepharitis with exudate and erythema and pruritus (may be chronic) - often associated with Staphylococcus spp Staphylococcus spp.
  • Hordeolum (external stye).
  • Chalazion (internal stye).

Allergic

Immune-mediated

Traumatic

Pathophysiology

  • Underlying skin disease or infection (Staphylococcus spp Staphylococcus spp often isolated)   →   inflammation of eyelids. If abscess formation may   →   cicatricial entropion or ectropion .
  • Many possible etiologies.

Timecourse

  • Depends on cause.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bistner S (1994) Allergic- and immunologic-mediated diseases of the eye and adnexae. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 24 (4), 711-734 PubMed.
  • Glaze M B (1991) Ocular allergy. Semin Vet Med Surg (4), 296-302 PubMed.
  • Peiffer R L, Cook C S, Möller I (1984) Therapeutic strategies involving antimicrobial treatment of ophthalmic disease in small animals. JAVMA 185 (10), 1172-1175 PubMed.
  • Peiffer R L Jr. (1980) Ocular immunology and mechanisms of ocular inflammation. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 10 (2), 281-302 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Petersen-Jones S & Crispin S (2002) BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. ISBN 0 905214 54 4

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