ISSN 2398-2950      

Uncinaria stenocephala

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Synonym(s): U. stenocephala, Hookworm


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Superfamily: Strongyloidea.
  • Genus: Uncinaria.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Adults in small intestine, particularly third quarter.
  • Eggs and L3 in environment.

Lifecycle

  • Adult.
  • Egg.
  • 3rd stage larva.

Transmission

  • Feco-oral, with egg passed in feces developing to infective L3 that is ingested.
  • Percutaneous infection not very successful.
  • Young adult cats or kittens become infected for the first time by overwintered larvae on grass or in poorly managed litter trays/cattery runs.

Pathological effects

  • Protective immunity is evident in older cats.
  • Hypersensitivity reaction to migrating larvae in skin leading to dermatitis rare in cats as rarely exposed to repeated infections.
  • Villous atrophy and inflammatory foci at points of plug feeding in villous/crypt area.
  • Adults move during feeding.
  • Protein losing gastroenteropathy inducing diarrhea, ill thrift with increased albumen turnover in young cats.
  • Not as pathogenic as Ancylostoma spp Ancylostoma tubaeforme, as it does not ingest as much blood.

Other Host Effects

  • Adult worms are plug feeders on mucosa of intestine.

Control

Control via animal

  • Anthelmintic treatment.
  • Removal of cats feces from gardens, cattery and breeding establishments, thorough cleaning of litter trays.
  • All young animals in the same environment may be passing eggs, with lower levels of infection in the older animals.
  • Reinfection and/or development of hypobiotic larvae may require additional treatments.

Control via chemotherapies

Control via environment

  • Removal of cats feces from gardens, cattery and breeding establishments, thorough cleaning of litter trays.
  • Concrete runs must be well-drained and without cracks in which moisture and larvae can accumulate.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Becker A C, Rohen M, Epe C et al (2012) Prevalence of endoparasites in stray and fostered dogs and cats in Northern Germany. Parasitol Res 111 (2), 849-857 PubMed.
  • Wolfe A, Hogan S, Maguire D et al (2001) Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance. Vet Rec 149 (25), 759-763 PubMed.
  • Bowman D D (1992) Hookworm parasites of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 14 (5), 585-595 VetMedResource.
  • Walker M J & Jacobs D E (1985) Pathophysiology of Uncinaria stenocephala infections of dogs. Vet Ann 25, 263-271 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Brownian D D (1999) Nematodes. In: Georgis' Parasitology for Veterinarians. 2nd end. Ed. D D Bowman. Philadelphia, PA: W B Saunders Co. pp 178-184.

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