ISSN 2398-2950      

Streptococcus spp

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Melissa Kennedy


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Streptococceae.
  • Genus: Streptococcus.

Etymology

  • Gk: streptos- twisted; Gk: kokkos- grain, berry, seed.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Many commensals on mucosal surfaces of respiratory, alimentary and urogenital systems.

Lifecycle

  • Streptococci are resident on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, lower genital and alimentary tract.
  • Reproduction is by binary fission to form chains or pairs.

Transmission

  • Transmitted by inhalation, ingestion or sexual contact.
  • Congenital or indirect (via fomites) transmission also occurs.

Pathological effects

  • Capsules of some spp antiphagocytic.
  • Pyogenic bacteria.
  • Beta-hemolytic isolates most pathogenic.
  • Exotoxins produced - streptolysin O and S, hyaluronidase, DNase, protease and streptoleinase.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Pathogenic streptococci are usually susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cephalexin and other cephalosporins, and potentiated sulfonamides.
  • Streptococci are often resistant to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Frymus T, Addie D D, Boucraut-Baralon C et al (2015) Streptococcal infections in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 17 (7), 620-625 PubMed.
  • Iglauer F, Kunstýr I, Mörstedt R et al (1991) Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony. J Exp Anim Sci 34 (2), 59-65 PubMed.

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