ISSN 2398-2950      

Pseudorabies virus

ffelis

Synonym(s): Aujesky's disease virus, porcine herpesvirus 1


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Herpesviridae.
  • Subfamily: Alphavirinae (Alphaherpesvirinae).
  • Genus: Varicellovirus.

Etymology

  • Same as canine herpesvirus.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • The principal reservoir is the pig.

Lifecycle

  • Replicates primarily in the upper respiratory epithelium including the tonsils; replicates in neural tissue; travels to CNS via neurons.
  • Replication in the cell nucleus - viral capsids (intranuclear inclusion bodies) are formed.

Transmission

  • Swine shed in respiratory secretions, urogenital tract.
  • Ingestion, inhalation or via pig bites. Rats may take virus from farm to farm.
  • Venereal transmission can occur in pigs.
  • No evidence of dog-to-dog spread or cat-to-cat spread.

Pathological effects

  • IgM antibodies first detectable about the fifth day. IgG measurable by the seventh day and at maximum levels by twelfth to fourteenth day.
  • Virus replicates in the upper respiratory epithelium including the tonsils.
  • Infection may occur in the lower airway; may cause necrotizing tracheitis and pneumonia.
  • Can be found in the brain 24 h after infection, therefore probably spreads via axoplasm.
  • Virus produces a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis with widespread damage to neurons.

In pigs

  • Produces a variable clinical picture.
  • Predominantly a nervous disease in young pigs; mortality 5-100%.
  • Severe nervous disease in adult pigs is rare. Presents vaguely with pyrexia, dullness and incoordination.
  • Respiratory disease may occur in pigs of all ages.
  • Infection in late pregnancy may cause abortion or stillbirth.

In cattle

  • Dominant sign is intense pruritus, resulting in licking, biting and abrasions.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement causes bellowing and frenzy but not aggression.
  • Death occurs from respiratory or cardiac failure.

In dogs

  • Fatal within 48 h.
  • Intense pruritus.
  • Convulsions and cranial nerve palsies may occur.
  • Aggressive behavior occurs rarely.

In cats

  • Sluggishness is followed by excitement; mewing and paralysis of the limbs may occur.
  • Recovery rarely occurs.

Control

Control via animal

  • Avoid feeding pork to dogs in areas where enzootic in pigs.

Vaccination

  • Modified live vaccines available for pigs. (Not in US - Federally regulated).

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Card J P, Enquist L W, Miller A D et al (1997) Differential tropism for sensory neurons in the cat. J Neurovirol (1), 49-61 PubMed.
  • Henderson J P, Graham D A, Stewart D (1995) An outbreak of Aujeszky's disease in sheep in Northern Ireland. Vet Rec 136 (22), 555-557 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!