Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Notoedres cati (head mange)

Contributor(s): Susan Dawson, David Scarff

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Sarcoptidae.
  • Genus: Notoedres.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • In burrows in the epidermis of the cat and occasionally dog and fox, and will survive 2 weeks on man.
  • Mites usually found in pockets or nests.

Lifecycle

  • See also Sarcoptes scabiei Sarcoptes scabiei life cycle Lifecycle: Sarcoptes scabiei - diagram .
  • Egg.
  • Larva.
  • Nymphs.
  • Adults.

Transmission

  • Transmission by direct contact when probably larvae or newly fertilized females are transferred.
  • Highly contagious and spread rapidly.
  • Mites can survive a few days off host and so transfer by fomites is possible.

Pathological effects

  • Antigens are assumed to be mite feces, secretions and hatching and moulting fluids.
  • Immune hypersensitivity reactions seem to be involved.
  • Infiltrating cells are mononuclear cells, eosinophils and mast cells in the vicinity of mites and their burrows.
  • Lesions primarily on ear, head and neck but may spread to trunk, feet and tail.
  • The burrowing mites cause marked thickening, hyperpigmentation and scaling of the skin with alopecia.
  • The severe pruritus causes much self-excoriation with formation of yellowish or brown crusts.
  • Severe infections in kittens can lead to septicemia and deaths.

Other Host Effects

  • Obligate parasite.

Control

Control via animal

Control via chemotherapies

  • Ivermectin Ivermectin (300 ug/kg) at least twice at a 2 week interval (unlicensed use in cats).
    Amitraz Amitraz occasionally produces very severe reactions in cats (not licensed in for use in cats) Amitraz toxicity.
  • Lime sulfur (1:40 solution) dip q7d for 6 weeks.

Control via environment

  • None required.
  • It may be useful to destroy or wash and dry the bedding.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Itoh N, Muraoka N, Aoki M & Itagaki T (2004) Treatment of Notoedres cati infestation in cats with selamectin. Vet Rec 154, 409
  • Delucchi L et al (2000) Use of doramectin for treatment of notoedric mange in five cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 216, (2) 215-6.
  • Foley R H (1991) A notoedric mange epizootic in an island's cat population. Feline Pract 198.
  • Foley R H (1991) Parasite mites of dogs and cats. CompContEd 13, 783.
  • Song M D (1991) Using Ivermectin to treat feline dermatoses caused by external parasites. Vet Med 86, 498.

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