Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Leptospira interrogans

Contributor(s): Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order: Spirochaetales.
  • Family: Leptospiraceae.
  • Genus: Leptospira.
  • Species: Leptospira interrogans.
  • More than 180 serovars.

Etymology

  • Greek: spira- a coil; chaete- a hair.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Survive in contaminated water.
  • Areas of high rainfall and poor drainage harbor infections.

Lifecycle

  • Long generation time (12 hours).

Transmission

  • Reservoir hosts include rodents. Reservoir hosts become infected with host-adapted serovars.
  • Leptospira spp are found in the mammalian kidney and excreted in the urine. The reservoir host shows none or only mild clinical signs.
  • Direct or indirect - contact with mucous membranes or damaged skin.
  • Indirect - depends on wet conditions.

Pathological effects

  • Antibodies important for clearance.
  • Damage vascular epithelium.
  • Damages parenchymal tissue in organs to which it is disseminated.

Diseases associated with L. interogans

  • Subclinical with L. canicola.
  • Acute hemorrhagic disease, L. icterohemorrhagiae.
  • Less acute icteric type, L. canicola or L. icterohemorrhagiae.
  • Uremia, L. canicola.
  • Chronic hepatitis, L. grippotyphosa.
  • Acute renal failure, L. grippotyphosa.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

Control via environment

  • Prevent contact with urine-contaminated water, especially near rodent habitats.

Vaccination

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Kalin M et al (1999) Three cases of canine leptospirosis in Quebec. Can Vet J 40(3), 187-191.
  • Birnbaum N, Barr S C, Centre S A et al (1998) Naturally acquired leptospirosis in 36 dogs - serological and clinicopathological features. JSAP 39(5), 231-236.
  • Weekes C C, Everard C O & Levett P N (1997) Seroepidemiology of canine leptospirosis on the island of Barbados. Vet Microbiol 57(2-3), 215-222.
  • Rentko V T, Clark N, Ross L A & Schelling S H (1992) Canine leptospirosis. A retrospective study of 17 cases. JVIM 6(4), 235-244.

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