ISSN 2398-2950      

Leishmania infantum

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Gad Baneth

Synonym(s): L. infantum (L. chagasi in South America)


Introduction

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Transmission

  • Transmitted by the bites of certain sand fly species; sand flies ingest amastigotes in blood from infected host  →  injected into another host when fly feeds again.
  • Dog is the main reservoir host.

Pathological effects

  • Antibodies produced but non-protective; may enhance uptake of amastigotes by macrophages.
  • Protection dependant on T-cell response.
  • Cutaneous lesions, ocular lesions, kidney disease, wasting, lymphadenomegaly.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

  • Allopurinol Allopurinol is the most commonly used drug to treat feline leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis caused by L. infantum. It is administered at 10 mg/kg PO every 12 hours for at least 6 months, and often for longer periods depending on the progression of the cat's disease. Clinical improvement is usually observed 3-4 weeks after the initiation of allopurinol treatment.
  • Meglumine antimoniate Meglumine antimoniate which is often administered in dogs in conjunction with allopurinol for the first 4 weeks of treatment, has also been used in a few cats with L. infantum infection. Meglumine antimoniate was administered at 5-50 mg/kg/day SQ or IM for a month.

Control via environment

  • Keeping cats indoors in an air-conditioned ennvironment will decrease the likelihood of being bitten by vector sand flies.
  • The use of topical insecticides may be helpful in decreasing the number of sand fly bites of cats, however, some pyrethroids including deltamethrin and permethrin Permethrin are toxic to cats and cannot be used to repel sand flies from them.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pennisi M G, Cardoso L, Baneth G et al (2015) LeishVet update and recommendations on feline leishmaniosis. Parasit Vectors 8, 302 PubMed.
  • Pennisi M G, Hartmann K, Lloret A et al (2013) Leishmaniosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg 15 (7), 638-642 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code