ISSN 2398-2950      

Coccidioides immitis

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Synonym(s): C. immitis


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Dimorphic fungus.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Lifecycle

  • Arthrospores grow into spherules in tissue. The walls disintegrate and endospores are liberated and repeat the cycle in the host or on a non-living substrate; develop into mycelial growth.

Transmission

  • Inhalation of dust.
  • Primary cutaneous infection (rare).

Pathological effects

  • Cell-mediated immunity develops early and can persist indefinitely and indicates resistance; disappears in disseminated disease.
  • IgM appears initially and then disappears. IgG titers rise in disseminated disease and remain high until after recovery.
  • Primarily a disease of the lungs and secondarily a disease of bones and other organs.
  • Inflammatory response occurs but phagocytes unable to kill the arthrospores. They are carried to the lymph nodes where other inflammatory foci occur. Usually arrested at this stage if cell-mediated immunity is not compromized, otherwise dissemination occurs.
  • Signs (dog): lassitude, anorexia, cough, fever, lameness, discharging sinuses. Some cases may be mild or sub-clinical.

Other Host Effects

  • Disease occurs in dogs and humans; subclinical in other animals.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chapman S W & Daniel C R 3rd (1994) Cutaneous manifestations of fungal infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am (4), 879-910 PubMed.
  • Sekhon A S, Isaac-Renton J, Dixon J M et al (1991) Review of human and animal cases of coccidioidomycosis diagnosed in Canada. Mycopathologica 113 (1), 1-10 PubMed.

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