ISSN 2398-2950      

Capillaria (Pearsonema) plica

ffelis
Contributor(s):

Stephen Barr

Ian Wright

Synonym(s): Pearsonema plica, C. plica


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Superfamily: Trichuroidea.
  • Genus: Capillaria (sometimes attributed to genus Pearsonema, use to either name is acceptable).

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Adult worm in bladder and occasionally ureters and pelvis of the kidney of the dog, fox, artic fox, coyote, jackal as well as other canids. Also described in cat, raccoon, skunk, etc.
  • Egg in soil.
  • Infective larva in earthworm intermediate host.

Lifecycle

  • Adult.
  • Egg.
  • Obligatory earthworm intermediate or paratenic host.

Transmission

Transmission to earthworm

  • Eggs passed in urine and develop to infective L1 in environment.

Transmission to cat

  • Ingestion of earthworm containing larvae.

Pathological effects

  • Not known.
  • No apparent age immunity. Prevalence increases in older carnivore populations as a result.
  • Usually non-pathogenic.
  • Capillaria plica buries its anterior end into the submucosa of the bladder inducing submucosal edema and a mild inflammation. Rarely urinary obstruction can occur.

Control

Control via animal

  • Anthelmintic treatment.
  • Remove from access to earthworms, eg keeping cats indoors or preventing hunting activity.
  • Consider all cats in same environment potentially infected.
  • Encouraging use of litter trays to avoid access of urine contaminated ground to earthworms.

Control via chemotherapies

  • No conclusive evidence for effective chemotherapy. Repeat treatments often required. In contact cats should be urine tested for evidence of infection. Treated cats should have urine tests for infection immediately post treatment and 2-4 months post treatment.
  • Either Ivermectin Ivermectin (200 microg/kg) (not licensed for use in cats).
  • Or Fenbendazole Fenbendazole (25 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days) (unlicensed use in cats).

Control via environment

  • Egg susceptible to desiccation in sunlight. Runs and kennel areas should be kept as dry and clean as possible.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Knaus M, Shukullari E, Rosentel J et al (2014) Efficacy of a novel topical combination of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against feline urinary bladder worm (Capillaria plica) infection. Vet Parasitol 202 (1-2), 45-48 PubMed.
  • Rossi M, Messina N, Ariti G et al (2011) Symptomatic Capillaria plica infection in a young European cat. J Fel Med Surg 13 (10), 793-795 PubMed.
  • Sréter T, Széll Z, Marucci G et al (2003) Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. Vet Parasitol 115 (4), 329-334 PubMed.
  • Senior D F, Solomon G B, Goldschmidt M H et al (1980) Capillaria plica infection in dogs. JAVMA 176 (9), 901-905 PubMed.

Other sources of information

Organization(s)

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