ISSN 2398-2985      

Enucleation

Jreptile

Introduction

  • Surgical procedure for removal of the globe for control of numerous conditions, such as uncontrolled uveitis, glaucoma as well as retrobulbar abscesses and hypopyon.
  • Often required because of trauma such as globe rupture and exophthalmos.
  • Occasionally required to treat ocular neoplasia.
  • For an in-depth review of reptilian ocular anatomy see Ocular anatomy and physiology.
  • Full closure of the wound is always not possible in Chelonia, crocodilians and many lizard species.

Uses

Advantages

  • Relatively easy technique for surgery with a short general anesthetic.
  • In cases of retrobulbar abscesses, allows direct access for clearing of debris, pus, and better drainage.
  • Provides immediate pain relief.
  • Post-operative medication usually only required for short period of time.
  • Diseased eye often has little to no vision left and the animal has already adapted.
  • Histopathology of removed globe can provide a definitive diagnosis for underlying condition.

Disadvantages

  • Loss of sight if any present before enucleation.
  • Retrobulbar abscesses can recur despite enucleation.
  • Risk of general anesthesia.
  • Risk of wound infection.
  • Risk of wound breakdown.
  • Drastic cosmetic change: site of enucleation may leave a depression at the site.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Generally good.
  • Guarded if retrobulbar abscess or neoplasia present.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Divers S J (2019) Surgery: Principles and Techniques. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Eds: Girling S J & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 219.

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