ISSN 2398-2985      

Tramadol

Jreptile

Introduction

Name

  • Tramadol hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic drug with both an opioid and non-opioid mediated mechanisms of analgesic action.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±) cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • C16H26ClNO2.

Molecular weight

  • 299.8.

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder.
  • Freely soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Slightly soluble in acetone.

Storage requirements

  • Tramadol tablets should be stored at room temperature in tight, light-resistant containers.
  • Tramadol is a Schedule 3 Controlled Drug in the UK and a similar status may apply in other countries.
Be aware of the potential for abuse of the drug by humans.
 

Uses

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Indications

  • Mild to moderate acute pain.
  • Adjunctive analgesic agent in management of chronic pain from cancer or osteoarthritis.
  • When used in combination with NSAIDs, it may be particularly useful for chronic pain conditions. It can be considered as an alternative analgesic drug for animals that are intolerant of NSAIDs.
  • The efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol are not well described in reptiles.
  • Tramadol appears to be efficacious for the management of both acute and chronic pain, however the recommended dose range is largely empirical due to a lack of combined PK/PD studies.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Because of tramadol’s monoamine reuptake inhibition, it should not be given with tri-cyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors due to the risk of serotonin syndrome (increased heart rate, pupil dilation, twitching and hyperreflexia) and potential for seizures.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Giorgi M, Salvadori M, De Vito V et al (2015) Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessments of 10 mg/kg tramadol intramuscular injection in yellow-bellied slider turtle (Trachemys scripta scripta). J Vet Pharmacol Therap 38, 488-496 PubMed.
  • Norton T M, Cox S, Nelson S E et al (2015) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and o-desmethytramadol in loggerhead sea turtles (caretta caretta). J Zoo Wildl Med 46 (2), 262-265 PubMed.
  • Baker B B, Sladky K K & Johnson S M (2011) Evaluation of the analgesic effects of oral and subcutaneous tramadol administration in red-eared slider turtles. JAVMA 238 (2), 220-227 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Carpenter J W (2013) Reptiles. In: Exotic Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 113.
  • Greenace C B, Massi K, Schumacher J P et al (2008) Comparative Antinociception of Various Opioids and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Medications Versus Saline in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona Vitticeps) using Electrostimulation. Proc Annu Conf Rept Amph Vet. pp 87.
  • The NOAH Compendium. Datasheets of Licensed Veterinary Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.fda.gov.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate. Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.

Organisation(s)

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