ISSN 2398-2985      

Epinephrine

Jreptile

Synonym(s): Adrenaline, Epinephrine HCl, Neogen, Epinject


Introduction

Name

  • Epinephrine.

Class of drug

  • Catecholamine with both alpha- and beta-adrenergic activity.

Description

Chemical name

  • 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol.

Molecular formula

  • C9H13NO3.

Molecular weight

  • 183.20.

Physical properties

  • White to nearly white microcrystalline powder or granules.
  • Very slightly soluble in water, but it readily forms water-soluble salts, eg HCl, when combined with acids.

Storage requirements

  • Store in tight containers, protected from air and light.
  • Do not use the injection if it is pink, brown or contains a precipitate.
  • Stability of injectable solution may depend on manufacturer.

Uses

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Indications

  • Primarily used in the treatment of anaphylaxis and in cardiac resuscitation.
  • Because of its vasoconstrictive properties, epinephrine is also added to local anesthetics to retard systemic absorption and prolong effect Bupivacaine.
  • Also useful to stop small hemorrhages.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Toxicity may occur if used with other sympathomimetic amines, eg isoproterenol because of additive effects.
  • The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by antihistamines, eg chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, and thyroxine.
  • Propranolol may block the beta effects of epinephrine, thus facilitating an increase in blood pressure.
  • Alpha-blocking agents or diuretics may negate or diminish the pressor effects of epinephrine.
  • When epinephrine is used with drugs that sensitize the myocardium, eg halothane, high doses of digoxin, monitor for signs of arrhythmias.
  • Try to avoid the use of epinephrine in halothane-anesthetized animals.
  • Hypertension may result if epinephrine is used with oxytocic agents.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gatson B J, Goe A, Granone T D et al (2017) Intramuscular epinephrine results in reduced anesthetic recovery time in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) undergoing isoflurane anesthesia. J Zoo Wildl Med 48 (1), 55-61 PubMed.
  • Goe A, Shmalberhg J, Gatson B et al (2016) Epinephrine or GV-26 electrical stimulation reduces inhalant anesthetic recovery time in common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). J Zoo Wildl Med 47 (2), 501-507 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 1296.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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