ISSN 2398-2985      

Injection site reactions

Jreptile

Introduction

  • All injections carry a risk of introducing infection and resulting in inflammation.
  • Reptiles are predisposed to developing sterile abscesses following injections.
  • Causes:
    • Inappropriate disinfection prior to injection.
    • Poor injection technique.
    • Site of injection that is predisposed to reactions.
    • Repeated injections at the same time leading to inflammation.
  • Signs:
    • A swelling developing at the site of injection within a few hours to a few days.
    • In reptiles the swelling is often non-painful.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Based on clinical signs where a history of an injection is present.
    • Fine needle aspirate where a mass has developed.
    • Biopsy upon excision of a mass.
  • Treatment: dependent on severity of signs:
    • Where infection is present, excision of a possible abscess may be needed in reptiles.
    • In mild cases medical treatment may be sufficient.
    • Ongoing monitoring where a possible mass is not causing discomfort.
  • Prognosis: good to guarded depending on location.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Post-injection inflammatory reaction.
  • Repeat injections of the same site.
  • Use of irritant injectable solutions, eg enrofloxacin Enrofloxacin.
  • Use of high volumes and thick injectable solutions in a small space.
  • Poor injection Drug / fluid administration techniques technique.
  • Poor disinfection technique.

Predisposing factors

  • Often related to repeat trauma of the same location, eg where repeat antibiotic administration is given to reptiles via the same site.

Timecourse

  • Both acute and chronic reactions are seen.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

 

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