ISSN 2398-2985      

Intraosseous catheterization

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): IO catheterization


Introduction

  • Vascular access for delivering fluids Fluid therapy guidelines and medication Drug administration techniques is difficult in guinea pigs, particularly small or dehydrated animals, or animals that are in shock.
  • Intraosseous catheterization allows for vascular access.
  • The rate of absorption of a substance from the bone marrow is equivalent to that from a peripheral vein.

Uses

Advantages

  • Insertion into either the femur or the tibia allows for greater volumes of fluids and/or medications to be delivered easily.
  • Useful when IV sites unavailable or unobtainable.
  • Rate of absorption is great than that from a peripheral vein in a shocked patient.

Disadvantages

  • Requires heavy sedation with local anesthesia or full anesthesia to insert a needle into either the femur or the tibia.
  • Catheter insertion cap needs to be protected with bandage material.
  • Guinea pigs may chew at the site; bandaging may be needed.
  • Insertion into a bone cavity is considered painful so analgesia/NSAID should be delivered while the catheter is in place.
  • Risk of iatrogenic infections if aseptic technique is not used.
  • Contraindicated in cases of septic shock as risk of osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is high.
  • Contraindicated in the presence of local infections over the entry site.
  • Rate of administration can be slower than with the IV route.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • If the underlying reason the catheter was used for is cleared – then there is a good prognosis.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hawkins M G & Graham J E (2007) Emergency and critical care of rodents. Vet Clin Exot Anim 10 (2), 501-531 PubMed.
  • Klaphake E (2006) Common rodent procedures. Vet Clin Exot Anim 9 (2), 389-413 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Quesenberry K E & Orcutt C (2012) Basic Approach to Veterinary Care. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 13-26.

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