ISSN 2398-2985      

Gastrotomy / gastrectomy

6guinea pig

Introduction

  • The most common indications for gastrotomy in exotic species include foreign body ingestion (rare in guinea pigs), trichobezoars, neoplasia and gastric biopsy.
  • Foreign body ingestion is rare in guinea pigs, however as a hindgut fermenting species, they cannot vomit. Therefore, any ingested material that is unable to pass through the stomach needs to be surgically removed to prevent blockages.
  • Acute and chronic anorexia often lead to a negative energy balance in many exotic species with a secondary hepatic lipidosis.
  • Ulceration and necrosis of the stomach may occur, and gastrectomy may be indicated in some patients if a perforation is suspected on laparotomy.
  • Care needs to be taken when handling the gastrointestinal tract in many exotic species as the organ wall is often very thin, particularly when stretched due to bloat (cecum, stomach).
  • To avoid iatrogenic tissue trauma during gastrotomy it can be helpful to have an assistant holding the relevant tissues instead.
  • If the stomach is distended, decompression with a nasogastric or orogastric tube is indicated pre-operatively.
  • Foreign body obstruction can happen quickly in rodents and the patient can debilitate rapidly. Aggressive stabilization is needed for the best surgical outcome.
Print off the Owner Factsheet on Intestinal obstructions, Impactions - what's the blockage? and Hairballs to give to your clients.

Uses

Advantages

  • Gastrotomy and gastrectomy allow for direct visualization of the gastrointestinal tract and possible ulceration.
  • Biopsies of the gastric lining can be collected and removal of foreign bodies as well as biopsies and resection of necrotic lining performed.

Disadvantages

  • Invasive procedure requiring laparotomy Laparotomy.

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Aftercare

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prognosis

  • Poor.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Miwa Y & Sladky K (2016) Small mammals: common surgical procedures of rodents, ferrets, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (1), 205-244 PubMed
  • DeCubellis J & Graham J (2013) Gastrointestinal disease in guinea pigs and rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 16 (2), 421-435 PubMed.
  • Capello V (2011) Common surgical procedures in pet rodents. J Exotic Pet Med 20 (4), 294-307 SciDirect.
  • Theus M, Bitterli F & Foldenauer U (2008) Successful treatment of a gastric trichobezoar in a Peruvian guinea pig (Cavia aperea procellus). J Exotic Pet Med 17 (2), 148-151 SciDirect.
  • Hawkins M G & Graham J E (2007) Emergency and critical care of rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 10 (2), 501-531 PubMed.
  • Capello V (2003) Surgical techniques in pet hamsters. Exotic DVM 5, 32-37.
  • Redrobe S (2002) Soft tissue surgery of rabbits and rodents. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 11 (4), 240-242 SciDirect.
  • Mullen H S (2000) Nonreproductive surgery in small mammals. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 3 (3), 629-645 PubMed.​

Other sources of information

  • Mitchell M & Tully T N (2016) Gastrointestinal System. In: Current Therapy in Exotic Pet Practice. Elsevier, USA. pp 221-276.
  • Bojrab M J, Waldron D R, Toombs J P & Monnet E (2014) Surgical Techniques in Small Exotic Animals. In: Current Techniques in Small Animal Surgery. 5th edn. Scopus, USA. pp 690-691.
  • Quesenberry K A & J W Carpenter (2012) Gastrointestinal Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 27-45.
  • Quesenberry K A & J W Carpenter (2012) Soft Tissue Surgery. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 373-391.
  • Keeble E & Meredith A (2009) Rodents: Digestive System Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. BSAVA, UK. pp 127.
  • Orcutt C J (2005) Fluid Therapy in Small Mammals. In: Proc North American Veterinary Conference. pp 1366-1368. Website: www.ivis.org.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code