ISSN 2398-2985      

Urinalysis: specific gravity

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Relative density


Overview

  • Measurement of kidneys' ability to concentrate and dilute urine.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

Refractometer

  • Most common method.
  • Single drop placed on glass surface; reading relative so specific gravity of distilled water (=1).
  • Crystalluria does not appear to interfere with reading.

Dipstick

Availability

  • Standard practice laboratory technique.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Good with refractometer.
  • Poor with dipstick.

Specificity

  • Good with refractometer.
  • Poor with dipstick.

Predictive value

  • Must be interpreted alongside blood biochemistry Blood biochemistry: overview.
  • Dipstick results are inaccurate, refractometer should be used.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Cannot interpret results in isolation from other urinalysis results and lab tests.
  • Single random result outside normal reference range cannot establish diagnosis.
  • Glucosuria Glucosuria may result in false elevation of urine specific gravity.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Refractometer must be calibrated using distilled water before use.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fisher P G (2006) Exotic mammal renal disease: diagnosis and treatment. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 9 (1), 69-96 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Quesenberry K E, Donnelly T M & Mans C (2012) Biology, Husbandry and Clinical Techniques of Guinea Pigs and Chinchillas. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 279-294.
  • Bishop C R, Fisher J, Brossoit A & Pierson C (2010) Standardization of Renal Physiology Parameters in Guinea Pigs Via Urinalysis. In: Proc 31st Annu Conf Ass Av Vet. pp 49-52.
  • Lichtenberger M L & Hawkins M G (2009) Rodents: Physical Examination and Emergency Care. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 18-31.
  • Wesche P (2009) Rodents: Clinical Pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 42-51.

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