ISSN 2398-2985      

Urinalysis: overview

6guinea pig

Overview

  • Urinalysis is an inexpensive test that can be easily and quickly performed in most veterinary practices.
  • Results can provide useful information and should be part of the minimum database for a patient.
  • Results can often help veterinarians diagnose both urinary tract disorders and systemic diseases.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

Physical appearance

  • Color.
  • Turbidity.

Chemical analsysis

  • Warm refrigerated sample to room temperature.
  • Mix the urine specimen thoroughly.
  • Pipette urine onto test pads.
  • Hold horizontally to avoid run-off between pads.
  • Read test at correct interval.
  • Determine specific gravity by refractometer; test dipstick specific gravity is not accurate.

Microscopic examination

  • Centrifuge at 3000 rpm for 5 min.
  • Decant supernatant.

EITHER add 1 drop of sedistain or a supravital stain such as Sternheimer-Malbin to the sediment.
OR leave 0.5 ml urine in centrifuge tube.

  • Re-suspend sediment by tapping the centrifuge tube.
  • Transfer one drop of sediment to a microscope slide and place a coverslip over it.
  • Lower the condenser on the microscope to improve contrast.
  • Systematically examine the slide under a low power objective, assessing quantity and type of sediment.
  • Examine sediment under the high power objective to assess cell morphology and to detect bacteria, crystals and cells within the sample.

Availability

  • All veterinary practices.
  • External laboratories.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fisher P G (2006) Exotic mammal renal disease: diagnosis and treatment. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 9 (1), 69-96 PubMed.
  • Neuhaus J, Dorschner W, Mondry J & Stolzenburg J U (2001) Comparative anatomy of the male guinea-pig and human lower urinary tract: histomorphology and three-dimensional reconstruction. Anat Histol Embryol 30 (3), 185-192 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Rueloekke M L, Spangsberg R & Koch J (2016) Physiologic Serial Changes in the Visual Appearance of Urine Samples from Individual Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus). In: Proc 2016 BSAVA Congress. UK. pp 553-554.
  • Rueloekke M L, Spangsberg R & Koch J (2016) Establishment of Normal Values of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus). In: Proc 2016 BSAVA Congress. pp 554.
  • Quesenberry K E, Donnelly T M & Mans C (2012) Biology, Husbandry and Clinical Techniques of Guinea Pigs and Chinchillas. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 279-294.
  • Bishop C R, Fisher J, Brossoit A & Pierson C (2010) Standardization of Renal Physiology Parameters in Guinea Pigs Via Urinalysis. In: Proc 31st Annu Conf Ass Av Vet. pp 49-52.
  • Lichtenberger M L & Hawkins M G (2009) Rodents: Physical Examination and Emergency Care. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 18-31.
  • Wesche P (2009) Rodents: Clinical Pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Ferrets and Rodents. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 42-51.

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