ISSN 2398-2985      

Metronidazole

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Metronidazole HCl, Flagyl, Stomorgyl, Protosta, Metrolyl


Introduction

Name

  • Metronidazole.

Class of drug

  • Synthetic nitroimidazole.

Description

Molecular formula

  • C6H9N3O3.

Molecular weight

  • 171.15.

Physical properties

  • White to pale yellow crystalline powder or crystals.
  • It is sparingly soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Metronidazole HCl is very soluble in water.

Storage requirements

  • Room temperature and protected from light.
  • The injectable form should not be frozen.

Uses

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Indications

  • Anerobic infections, eg Bacteroides spp, Clostridium spp, Clostridium difficile, etc, giardiasis and other protozoal infections. Activity against most obligate anaerobes, except for Actinomyces. Activity against other aerobic bacteria.
  • 92% of anaerobes found in odotogenic abscesses of guinea pigs are susceptible to metronidazole.
  • Trichomonacidal and amebicida: Trichomonas, Entamoeba, Giardia, Balantidium.
  • Management of hepatic encephalopathy and some enteritides.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Phenobarbitone or phenytoin
  • May increase metabolism of metronidazole.
Cimetidine Cimetidine
  • May decrease metabolism of metronidazole and increase the likelihood of dose-related adverse effects occurring.

with diagnostic tests

  • The one-stage prothrombin (OSPT) time in patients on warfarin may be prolonged by metronidazole.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, Uk. pp 338.
  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley Blackwell. pp 1296.
  • Maguire S & Hawk C T (2012) Formulary. In: The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and other Rodents. Eds: Suckow M, Stevens K & Wilson R. Academic Press, United States. pp 1193-1229.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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