ISSN 2398-2985      

Lidocaine

6guinea pig
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

David Vella

Synonym(s): Lignocaine


Introduction

Name

  • Lidocaine.

Class of drug

  • Amide-linked local anesthetic.
  • Class 1B antidysrhythmic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide.

Molecular formula

  • C14H22N2O.

Molecular weight

  • 234.34.

Physical properties

  • Clear, sterile solution.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C/77°F.
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Drug of choice for treating acute ventricular dysrhythmias.
  • Used predominantly as a local anesthetic.
  • Onset of local anesthesia typically 5-10 min.
  • Duration of local anesthesia usually 1-2 h.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Cimetidine
  • May increase serum lidocaine levels or its effects if administered concurrently.
Propranolol
  • May increase serum lidocaine levels or its effects if administered concurrently.
Procainamide
  • May cause additive CNS effects.
Other anti-dysrhythmics
  • May cause increased myocardial depression.
Acetazolamide, loop diuretics and thiazides
  • The effect of lidocaine may be antagonized by hypokalemia with the above drugs Furosemide.
Suxamethonium
  • Large doses of lidocaine may prolong suxamethonium-induced apnea.
Other local anesthetics
  • Dose of lidocaine should be reduced when used in combination with other local anesthetics.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Finster M et al (1972) The placental transfer of lidocaine and its uptake by fetal tissues. Anesthesiology 36 (2), 159-163 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Lidocaine. In: BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th edn. Cheltenham, BSAVA.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website: www.gov.uk.
  • Gaertner D J et al (2008) Anesthesia and Analgesia for Laboratory Rodents. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. 2nd edn. Elsevier. pp 239-298.
  • Lichtenberger M & Ko J (2007) Anaesthesia and Analgesia for Small Mammals and Birds. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 10 (2), 293-315.
  • Flecknell P A (1996) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. 2nd edn. Academic Press.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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