ISSN 2398-2985      

Chloramphenicol

6guinea pig

Introduction

Name

  • Chloramphenicol.

Class of drug

  • Bacteriostatic antibiotic.

Description

Molecular formula

  • C11H12Cl2N2O5.

Molecular weight

  • 323.13.

Physical properties

  • Fine, white to yellow plates of needle-like crystals. Freely soluble in alcohol and 2.5 mg are soluble in 1 mL of water at 25°C/77°F. Chloramphenicol sodium succinate is a white to light yellow powder.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.
  • After reconstitution for injection, the solution is stable for 30 days at room temperature, and 6 months if frozen. Discard when it becomes cloudy.

Uses

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Indications

Gram-positive infections

Gram-negative infections

  • Salmonella spp.
  • Haemophilus spp.

Anaerobic infections

  • Clostridium spp.
  • Bacteroides fragilis.

Other sensitive organisms

  • Chlamydia spp.
  • Mycoplasma spp.
  • Rickettsia spp.
  • Resistant organisms are Nocardia, Mycobacterium spp.
  • Acquired resistance may occur in Enterobacteriacae.
  • Better used in individual animals when other antibiotics have failed.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Anticonvulsants (pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone and phenytoin)
  • Chloramphenicol is an irreversible inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes and so increases the plasma levels of these drugs, pentobarbital Pentobarbital, oral hypoglycemic agents.
  • Recovery from the inhibitory effects requires synthesis of new liver enzymes and can take up to 3 weeks.
Iron salts and Vitamin B12
  • Decreased hematologic response may be seen.
Rifampicin
  • Accelerates the metabolism of chloramphenicol, thus decreasing serum levels.
  • Chloramphenicol may inhibit activity of bactericidial antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides and beta-lactams.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed. Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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