ISSN 2398-2985      

Amphotericin B

6guinea pig
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Mark Naguib


Introduction

Name

  • Amphotericin B.

Class of drug

  • Polyene antifungal antibiotic.

Description

Molecular formula

  • C47H73NO17.

Physical properties

  • Yellow powder/tablets or solution.
  • Injectable: 50 mg/vial powder for reconstitution.

Storage requirements

  • After reconstitution the preparation is stable for 1 week if refrigerated and stored in the dark.
  • Keep in the dark, however, the loss of drug activity is negligible for at least 8 hours in room light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Advanced systemic mycoses.
  • Management of leishmaniosis in other species.
  • Fungal septicemia.
  • Fungal urinary tract infections.
  • Candida is particularly susceptible to this medication.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Amphotericin B may increase the toxic effects of cisplatin, fluorouracil, docorubicin and methotrexate.
  • Flucytocine (flucytosine) is synergistic with amphotericin B in vitro against Candida Candida albicans, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Krautwald-Junghanns M E (2015) Aspergillosis in birds: An overview of treatment options and regimesJ Exotic Pet Med 24 (3), 296-307 JExoticPetMed.
  • Ziolkowska G, Tokarzewski S & Nowakiewicz A (2014) Drug resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from flocks of domestic geese in Poland. Poultry Sci 93 (5), 1106-1112 PubMed.
  • Deren Y T et al (2010) Comparison of antifungal efficacies of moxifloxacin, liposomal amphotericin B, and combination treatment in experimentalCandida albicansendophthalmitis in rabbitsCan J Microbiol 56 (1), 1-7 PubMed.
  • Silvanose C D, Bailey T A & Di Somma A (2006) Susceptibility of fungi isolated from the respiratory tract of falcons to amphotericin B, itraconazole and vorconazole.Vet Rec 159 (9), 282-284 PubMed.
  • Cannon et al (2003) Comparative toxicity and concentrations of intravitreal amphotericin B formulations in a rabbit model. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 44 (5), 2112-2117 PubMed.
  • Petraitis V et al (2002) Comparative antifungal activities and plasma pharmacokinetics of micafungin (FK463) against disseminated candidiasis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Antimicrobial Agents Chemo 46 (6), 1857-1869 PubMed.
  • Sanati H et al (1997) Combination therapy with amphotericin B and fluconazole against invasive candidiasis in neutropenic-mouse and infective-endocarditis rabbit models. Antimicrobial Agents Chemo 41 (6), 1345-1348 PubMed.
  • Christiansen K J et al (1985) Distribution and activity ofamphotericin B in humans. J Infect Dis 152 (5), 1037-1043 PubMed.
  • Arroyo C J (1984) Amphotericin B fever in rabbits. Life Sci 34 (13), 1249-1252 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2015) Ed BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA, UK. pp 20-21.
  • Hedley J (2014) Respiratory Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 160-167.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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