ISSN 2398-2985      

Tyzzer's disease

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Clostridium piliforme infection


Introduction

  • Cause: infection with Clostridium piliforme bacteria.
  • Signs: rough haircoat, lethargy, watery diarrhea, sudden death.
  • Diagnosis: necropsy findings, isolation of bacteria on anaerobic culture.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, supportive care.
  • Prognosis: poor to grave; treatment is usually unsuccessful.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Infection with Clostridium piliforme.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Young especially weanling, just shipped, placed in a pet shop, diet change.
  • Immunosuppressed for any reason.
  • Stress, including poor diet, husbandry.

Specific

  • Exposure to other rodents that may be carrying the bacteria.

Pathophysiology

  • Bacterial infection is confined to the gastrointestinal tract and liver.
  • Bacilli are intracellular.
  • Bacilli identified in enterocytes.

Timecourse

  • In experimental infections, lesions appeared in ileum, large intestine and liver by day 4:
    • Bacilli were found in gut lesions 4-10 days.
    • Found in liver lesions only at 8-10 days post-inoculation.

Epidemiology

  • Oral ingestion.
  • Vertical transmission reported in hysterectomy-derived, gnotobiotically reared guinea pigs.
  • Can be spread between species of rodents.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Harkness J E, Turner P V, Vandewoude S & Wheler C L (2010) Harkness and Wagner’s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 5th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 212.
  • Hrapkiewicz K & Medina L (2007) Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine an Introduction. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing. pp 168.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.

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