ISSN 2398-2985      

Stranguria

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Straining to urinate


Introduction

  • Cause: cystitis, urolthiasis. Note: blood will always be found in a urine sample obtained by manual expression and is not the same as the guinea pig voiding hematuria.
  • Signs: stranguria: straining to urinate. May be hematuria. Guinea pig may have anorexia and changes in behavior and water consumption.
  • Diagnosis: urinalysis, ultrasonography, radiography, culture and sensitivity.
  • Treatment: if cystitis, antibiotics preferably based on culture and sensitivity; if urolthiasis, likely will require cystotomy to remove stones.
  • Prognosis: good for uncomplicated cystitis; guarded for urolthiasis, as many of these do recur.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • For cystitis Cystitis:
    • Ascending bacterial infection.
    • Various bacteria have been isolated:
      • Coliforms.
      • Streptococcus spp, including S. pyogenes.
      • Staphylococcus spp.
    • Bacterial infections have been found in association with urolithiasis Urolithiasis, although the causality between cystitis and urolithiasis incidence is unclear.
  • Urolithiasis Urolithiasis:
    • Exact cause is unclear.
    • Speculated that normal alkalinity and high mineral content favors calculi formation.
    • Urinary tract bacterial infections are frequently associated with calculi although it is unclear if they play a role in the formation of a stone Cystitis.
    • Calcium carbonate is the most common composition as determined by recent studies.
    • Older literature frequently states that calcium oxalate calculi is most common.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Female: short urethra.
  • Stress.
  • Not consuming enough water for adequate urination (either through dietary sources or mechanism of water delivery).

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Cystitis Cystitis:
    • Bacteria multiplies in the mucosa, setting up an inflammatory response.
    • Damage to the mucosa allows for more bacterial growth.
    • Bladder wall itself will thicken in response to the infection, inflammation.
  • Urolithiasis Urolithiasis:
    • Calculi most commonly found in the bladder or urethra.
    • Calculi have been found in kidneys, ureters, vagina, or in the seminal vesicles in males.
    • Bacteria found in urine associated with calculi:
      • E. coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus spp, Corynebacterium renale, Facklamia spp separately.
      • Mixed cultures of C. renale, Streptococcus bovis/equinus group and Staphylococcus spp documented.
    • Bacteria cultured directly from calculi: Streptococcus viridans, Proteus mirabilis, and mixed growth with S. viridans, Staphylococcus spp, E. coli or Enterococcus spp.
    • Location of the calculi may cause obstruction within the urinary tract; this in turn may lead to hydroureter, hydronephrosis. There may be complete blockage of urine flow in males with urethral obstruction.
    • The calculi may cause irritation/damage to the urinary tract mucosa contributing to hematuria Hematuria and potential for bacterial infection (or further infection).

Timecourse

  • Can be fairly rapid for cystitis Cystitis.
  • Likely urolithiasis Urolithiasis may take days to weeks or longer.
  • If obstructive urolithiasis, signs may be acute.

Epidemiology

  • Individual animal problem.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wenger S & Hatt J-M (2015) Transurethral cystoscopy and endoscopic urolith removal in female guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 18 (3), 359-367 PubMed.
  • Eshar D, Lee-Chow B & Chalmers H J (2013) Ultrasound-guided percutaneous antegrade hydropropulsion to relieve ureteral obstruction in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Can Vet J 54 (12), 1142-1145 PubMed.
  • Hawkins M G, Ruby A L, Drazenovich T L & Westropp J L (2009) Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs. JAVMA 234 (2), 214-220 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Johnson-Delaney C (2010) Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus and Duprasi. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 28-62.

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