ISSN 2398-2985      

Salmonellosis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Salmonella enteritis, Salmonella septicemia


Introduction

  • Cause: infection with Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, but other serovars might be found.
  • Signs: may just be found dead due to septicemia (usually acute), anorexia, weight loss, light-colored soft feces (sometimes diarrhea), conjunctivitis, dyspnea, abortion, scruffy hair coat.
  • Diagnosis: necropy, culture, serovar identification.
  • Treatment: not usually recommended due to zoonotic potential, however for individual pet if owner insists: supportive care primarily fluid therapy, antibiotics (risk of development of resistance).
  • Prognosis: poor to grave.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • As with any pathogen, risk of infection causing disease depends on the challenge (number of bacteria gaining entry) and the immune status of the individual.
  • Infection with Salmonella spp; most commonly Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, but other serovars might be found.
  • Usually ingestion of contamined food, water, including fresh produce that was inadequately washed.
  • Ingestion of contaminated feces, eg carried by wild rodents if they can enter the guinea pig enclosure.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Stress (such as at weaning, breeding).
  • Aged animals.

Specific

  • Any conditions where there is immunocompromise.

Pathophysiology

  • Salmonella septicemia which includes release of endotoxins.
  • There can be multi-system toxemia in severe cases.

Timecourse

  • Usually acute to subacute (consider within hours of ingestion).

Epidemiology

  • Can spread between animals.
  • Infection through ingestion of contaminated feed, bedding (eg with feces from wild rodents) and/or water.
  • Zoonotic.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Albert M J, Ansaruzzaman M, Faruque S M et al (1991) Outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis due to Salmonella weltevreden in a guinea pig colony. J Clin Microbio 29 (9), 2002-2006 PubMed.
  • Okewole P A, Uche E M, Ovetunde I L et al (1989) Uterine involvement in guineapig salmonellosis. Lab Anim 23 (3), 275-277 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Johnson-Delaney C (2010) Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus and Duprasi. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 28-62.
  • Hrapkiewicz K & Medina L (2007) Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine an Introduction. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing. pp 167-168
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.

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