ISSN 2398-2985      

Nasal discharge

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Rhinitis, Sinusitis, Upper respiratory disease


Introduction

  • Cause: multiple etiologies including infectious or non-infectious; most common cause is bacterial infection.
  • Signs: primary sign is serous or mucopululent nasal discharge; may also be concurrent ocular discharge.
  • Diagnosis: bacterial culture and sensitivity from nasal swab, nasal wash. ELISA and IFA, PCR/serology, cytology of exudates from swab of nasal or ocular discharge, Diff-quick and Gram’s stain, skull and thoracic radiography, CT, MRI, bloodwork, nasal cavity biopsy, oral endoscopy.
  • Treatment: depends on underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: base on underlying cause of the disease, severity and chronicity. Good to grave.
Print off the Owner factsheets on Nasal discharge Common health problems, Giving your guinea pig a health check and Sinusitis to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Infectious causes

  • Bacterial:
    • Bordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella bronchiseptica .
    • Streptococcus zooepidemicus.
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Streptobacillus moniliformis.
    • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
    • Haemophilus spp.
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    • Pasteurella multocida.
    • Salmonella spp.
    • Staphylococcus aureus.
    • Streptococcus pyogenes.
    • Citrobacter spp.
  • Viral:
    • Adenovirus GpAV Adenovirus: primarily has been documented in laboratory colonies, unknown incidence in pet populations.
    • Parainfluenza virus: this is rare.

 Non-infectious causes

  • Dental disease Dental disease:
    • Maxillary tooth roots may extend into nasal passages.
    • This often leads to secondary bacterial infection, tooth root abscesses and obstructions.
  • Neoplasia:
  • Foreign bodies, although these are uncommon. Could include grass pieces, seeds, bits of bedding material.
  • Allergens or irritants.
    • Dusts and pollens in the environment including from bedding: example: wood chips.
    • Chemicals including cleaning solutions, smoke, dusty/dirty bedding, molds, ammonia buildup in the cage.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Poor husbandry:
    • Includes inappropriate use of bedding such as pine or cedar chips that contain aromatic oils that irritate the respiratory tract.
    • Infrequent cage cleaning that allows bedding to build up urine (ammonia), feces.
    • Overcrowding and poor ventilation. This also includes increased ambient temperature and humidity Heat stress.
    • Irritant chemicals used such as disinfectants like bleach – fumes can be inhaled.
  • Poor diet: may be deficient in vitamin C Vitamin C deficiency. Deficient in coarse fiber may be more prone to dental disease, GI dysbiosis.
  • Immunosuppression or compromise:
    • In laboratory colonies, may be exacerbated by experimental manipulations.
    • Vitamin C deficiency.
    • Corticosteroid administration.
    • Neonate or geriatric guinea pigs may be compromised.
    • Concurrent disease.

Specific

  • Dental disease especially if tooth roots extend into nasal cavity, develop tooth root abscesses, obstructions.
  • Disease agent itself: serotype of bacteria, infectious dose, virulence factors.

Pathophysiology

  • Rhinitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose.
  • Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Most common cause is bacterial infection spreading from the nasal passages:
    • To the eye via the nasolacrimal duct.
    • To the ear via the Eustachian tube Otitis externa/media/interna.
    • To the lungs via the trachea.
    • To the bones of the face or sinuses.
    • To the rest of the body via hematogenous route.
  • Dental disease Dental disease, including tooth abscesses can cause destruction of the nasal turbinates, facial bones, mucosa.

Timecourse

  • Variable depending on etiology:
    • Dental disease is considered chronic.
    • Many nasal passages bacterial infections are chronic.

Epidemiology

  • Depends on agent.
  • Most bacteria, viruses can be spread by direct contact.
  • Aerosols, droplets.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Rettenmund C L & Heatley J J (2011) Rhinitis and Sinusitis. In: Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. Ed: Oglesbee B L. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 323-325.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.

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