ISSN 2398-2985      

Metastatic mineralization

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Metastatic calcification


Introduction

  • Cause: unclear; thought to be related to dietary imbalances.
  • Signs: unthriftiness, muscle stiffness, renal dysfunction.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Treatment: palliative for comfort only; correct any hydration problems.
  • Prognosis: poor; lesions are irreversible. 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unclear.
  • Thought to be related to dietary imbalances Nutrition: overview:
    • Imbalanced Ca:P ratio.
    • Low magnesium.
    • Low potassium.
    • Oversupplementation with dietary vitamin D3 or minerals.
  • Dehydration may initiate.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Unclear.
  • Dietary imbalances of minerals.
  • Dietary oversupplementation of vitamin D3 or minerals.
  • Any cause of dehydration.

Pathophysiology

  • It is thought that low magnesium along with high phosphorus may be a factor in development, although high calcium, high phosphorus diet may interfere with magnesium absorption and metabolism.
  • Actual mechanism has not been determined.
  • Mineral deposition may be confined to soft tissues around the elbows and ribs, or be widespread: lung, trachea, heart, aorta, liver, kidney, stomach, uterus, sclera.
     

Timecourse

  • Likely gradual onset.

Epidemiology

  • Not transmissible, although if diet is a factor and there are multiple guinea pigs receiving the same diet, more may show the problem.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Hollamby S (2009) Rodents: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 161-168.
  • Hrapkiewicz K & Medina L (2007) Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine an introduction. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing. pp 176.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.

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