ISSN 2398-2985      

Hyperthermia

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): High/elevated body temperature


Introduction

  • Cause: hyperthermia occurs when the body over produces or over absorbs heat in high environmental temperatures and hot climate.
  • Signs: weakness, anorexia, dehydration and increased respiratory rate; seizure and death in severe cases.
  • Diagnosis: history, rectal temperature and general evaluation.
  • Treatment: hyperthermia requires immediate treatment, including cooling the animal down and supportive treatment such as oxygen supplementation and intravenous fluid therapy.
  • Prognosis: guarded.
  • Hyperthermia is different from fever:
    • Fever is an increase in body temperature that results from an increase in the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center due to bacterial or viral infection.
    • Hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature due to an increase of heat production or absorption without changes of the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • At high environmental temperatures, the animal may gain more heat than it can lose, leading to hyperthermia.
  • Hyperthermia then causes decreased arterial pressure and decreased blood perfusion of brain and major organs such a kidneys and liver.
  • Structural damage to body proteins can result in tissue damage and organ failure.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Outdoor pen without shade.
  • Poor ventilation.
  • Inadequate supply of cool drinking water.
  • Thick hair coat.
  • Obesity Obesity.
  • Old age.
  • Crowding.
  • Stress and pain.
  • Transportation.
  • Heating device during general anesthesia.

Specific

  • Elevated environmental temperature.
  • Faulty heating device in vivarium or faulty thermostat.
  • High humidity.
  • Direct sunlight in warm weather.

Pathophysiology

  • Heat stress Heat stress may lead to ischemia and cell necrosis throughout the body.
  • Lack of sweat glands in the skin means guinea pigs are vulnerable to heat stress in hot climates.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

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