ISSN 2398-2985      

Enteritis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Bacterial enteritis, Parasitic enteritis


Introduction

  • Cause: any that may affect the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract eg, inappropriate diet, vitamin C deficiency, stress, etc.
  • Signs: depression, anorexia, diarrhea, pain, bruxism, weight loss, poor condition, sunken eyes, dehydration, distended abdomen.
  • Diagnosis: history, physical examination, radiographs, blood chemistries, hematology, fecal examination, urinalysis.
  • Treatment: alleviate pain and fear, hydrate, nutritional support with assist feeding, vitamin C, antibiotics, antiparasitics if identified.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Generally starts with dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) due to many causes including:
    • Inappropriate diet most commonly lack of fiber (hay).
    • Abrupt changes to the diet.
    • Antibiotic therapy (inappropriate Toxicity: antibiotic).
    • Stress.
    • Pain.
    • Any systemic disease, particularly if it causes anorexia.
    • Dental disease Dental disease.
    • Poor sanitation.
  • Bacterial infection such as Salmonella Salmonellosis.
  • Parasitic infection such as Coccidia Coccidiosis.
  • Fungal overgrowth (secondary problem usually due to dysbacteriosis).

Predisposing factors

General

  • Stress of any kind.
  • Systemic disease of any kind.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Disruption of the normal gut flora due to many causes:
    • Normal flora is largely gram positive organisms.
    • Gut flora is crucial in the herbivore for digestion and gut motility function.
  • This may lead to all the clinical signs as listed above.
  • Cecal function disruption may lead to cecal hypomotility problems (stasis Gastrointestinal stasis), tympany.
  • Bloat, tympany, ileus due to motility problems (usually hypomotility).
  • Overgrowth of opportunistic pathogenic bacterial, parasitic or fungal organisms.
  • Bacterial pathogens:
    • E. coli.
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    • Listeria monocytogenes.
    • Citrobacter freundii.
    • Clostridium difficile.
    • Clostridium perfringens.
    • Clostridium piliforme.
    • Campylobacter.
    • Salmonella: typhimurium, enteritidis.
  • Parasitic:
    • Coccidiosis Coccidiosis: Eimeria caviae.
    • Balantidium caviae.
    • Entamoeba muris.
    • Trichomonas caviae.
    • Giardia duodenalis.
    • Cryptosporidium wrairi.
    • Paraspidodera uncinata.
    • Rodentolepis nana.
  • Fungal:
    • Cyniclomyces guttulatus.

Timecourse

  • May be rapid if tympany, bloat, hypomotility.
  • May be rapid if diarrhea, dehydration.

Epidemiology

  • It is not a contagious problem.
  • If due to diet change, inappropriate diet, poor vitamin C availability in a household with multiple guinea pigs, others may also be affected.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Mans C (2013) Intestinal Disorders. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor Birds and Exotic Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly TM. Elsevier. pp 263-266.
  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Johnson-Delaney C (2010) Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus and Duprasi. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 28-62.
  • Ward M (2009) Rodents: Digestive System Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 123-141.

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