ISSN 2398-2985      

Cytomegalovirus

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): CMV, Herpesvirus


Introduction

  • Cause: cytomegalovirus (CMV) a species-specific herpesvirus.
  • Signs: usually asymptomatic.
  • Diagnosis: at necropsy, histopathology: intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in affected cells. Serology.
  • Treatment: none.
  • Prognosis: CMV in natural infections is usually subclinical, and will be carried latently for the life of the animal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Guinea pig cytomegalovirus; Herpesviridae.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Many colonies have this as a subclinical, latent infection. Usually is considered an incidental finding at necropsy.
  • CMV may be inoculated as it is used as a model for human CMV.
  • Associated with immunosuppression.

Specific

  • Lesions produced in inoculated weanlings, pregnant guinea pigs.
  • Immunocompromized animals may get systemic infection with lesions when inoculated.

Pathophysiology

  • In natural infections, primary target organs are salivary glands, liver, kidney.
  • In experimental disease (inculation subcutaneously):
    • Focal lesions with intranuclear inclusion bodies in salivary gland, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney.
    • Produces lymphoproliferative disease with mononucleosis-like syndrome and lymphadenopathy.
  • Reported infection of young, naive animals introduced into a conventional colony having focal destructive lesions with large intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in various tissues:
    • Spleen.
    • Liver.
    • Kidney.
    • Lung.
  • In natural infections, lesions are usually regarded as an incidental finding. Primarily confined to ductal epithelial cells of the salivary glands.
  • In acute systemic form: interstitial pneumonitis. Multifocal areas of necrosis in lymph nodes, spleen, liver, kidney, lung and other viscera.
  • Virus is shed in urine, saliva, or transplacentally.

Timecourse

  • Natural infection: may take prolonged time period.
  • Experimental infections: fairly acute, immune status may affect; consider within 2-4 weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Conventional colonies: most are subclinically infected.
  • Transmission is through urine, saliva or transplacentally.
  • For animal model work: usually inoculated subcutaneously.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.

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