ISSN 2398-2985      

Cystitis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Urinary bladder infection, Urinary bladder inflammation


Introduction

  • Cause: bacterial infection of the urinary bladder; it also has an inflammatory component.
  • Signs: hematuria, stranguria, although these may seem intermittent.
  • Diagnosis: urinalysis, culture and sensitivity testing of urine (obtain via cystocentesis, preferably ultrasound-guided), imaging including radiographs, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfa, but based on culture and sensitivity results.
  • Prognosis: good for cystitis without urolithiasis.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Cystitis to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ascending bacterial infection.
  • Various bacteria have been isolated:
    • Coliforms.
    • Streptococcus spp, including S. pyogenes.
    • Staphylococcus spp.
  • Bacterial infections have been found in association with urolithiasis Urolithiasis, although the causality between cystitis and urolithiasis incidence is unclear.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Female: short urethra.
  • Stress.
  • Not consuming enough water for adequate urination (either through dietary sources or mechanism of water delivery).

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Bacteria multiplies in the mucosa, setting up an inflammatory response.
  • Damage to the mucosa allows for more bacterial growth.
  • Bladder wall itself will thicken in response to the infection, inflammation.

Timecourse

  • Unknown, as signs may be slow to be noticed.

Epidemiology

  • Bacteria found are usually from the guinea pig itself.
  • Unsanitary cage environment may encourage bacterial growth, which the guinea pig's perineal area will be in direct contact.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Johnson-Delaney C (2010) Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus and Duprasi. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 28-62.

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