ISSN 2398-2985      

Cutaneous neoplasia

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Skin tumor


Introduction

  • Most cutaneous neoplasia in guinea pigs is benign.
  • Cause: trichofolliculomas are the most common cutaneous tumor; these develop from hair follicles where there are abortive follicular adnexal structures in the walls of cysts.
  • Signs: depends on type of tumor. Soft/firm masses in the skin or subcutaneous tissue.
  • Diagnosis: fine needle aspiration -> cultured if bacterial infection suspected and submitted for cytology. Biopsy for histopathology is definitive.
  • Treatment: surgical excision is curative for most.
  • Prognosis: good for most benign tumors with complete excision. Malignant mammary gland tumors carry a guarded prognosis as they tend to reoccur.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trichofolliculomas are the most common cutaneous tumor:
    • These develop from hair follicles where there are abortive follicular adnexal structures in the walls of cysts.
    • These may rupture. The discharge is white to gray, sebaceous.
    • They may have an odor.
    • There may be some chronic hemorrhage associated with the mass, rupture process.
    • Although benign, they will continue to grow and become quite large.
  • Trichoepitheliomas Trichoepithelioma develop from all three segments of the hair follicle (infundibulum, isthmus, and inferior segments). They are discrete masses comprised of mixtures of cystic structures and budding epithelial islands.
  • Lipomas are benign connective tissue tumors (second most common cutaneous tumor): histologically normal adipose cells.
  • Mammary tumors are under estrogen and progesterone stimulation.

Other reported tumors

  • Trichoepithelioma Trichoepithelioma.
  • Mammary gland adenocarcinoma Mammary gland adenocarcinoma.
  • Sebaceous adenoma Sebaceous adenoma.
  • Soft tissue sarcoma.
  • Fibrosarcoma.
  • Fibrolipoma.
  • Fibropapilloma (ear canal).
  • Mammary gland adenoma/cystadenoma.
  • Carcinoma (exact cutaneous cell line not determined).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Malignant melanoma.
  • Liposarcoma .
  • Cutaneous hemangiosarcoma.
  • Epitheliotropic lymphoma.
  • In one retrospective study, there had also been listed the following which were considered to be infrequent tumors:
    • Apocrine gland adenoma.
    • Basal cell carcinoma.
    • Hemagioma.
    • Malignant lymphoma.
    • Myxosarcoma.
    • Neurofibrosarcoma.
    • Papillary cystadenocarcinoma.
    • Sebaceous gland epithelioma.
    • Schwannoma.
    • Spindle cell sarcoma.
    • Squamous papilloma.
    • Tubulopapillary carcinoma.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Intact guinea pigs may have a higher number of mammary tumors, although they do occur in castrated/ovariohysterectomized animals.

Pathophysiology

  • Trichofolliculomas are the most common cutaneous tumor:
    • These develop from hair follicles where there are abortive follicular adnexal structures in the walls of cysts.
    • The core of the cyst can be filled with clusters of irregular keratin debris, as well as filled with glandular material.
  • Trichoepitheliomas Trichoepithelioma develop from all three segments of the hair follicle (infundibulum, isthmus, and inferior segments). They are discrete masses comprised of mixtures of cystic structures and budding epithelial islands.

Timecourse

  • For any, usually weeks to months.

Epidemiology

  • Not contagious process.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Kanifer S & Reavill D R (2013) Cutaneous neoplasia in ferrets, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Vet Clin Exot Anim 15 (3), 579-598 PubMed.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.

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