ISSN 2398-2985      

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Cruciate rupture

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Introduction

  • Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is poorly described in guinea pigs.
  • Cause: usually trauma related.
  • Signs: acute onset lameness, pain, stifle effusion, limb swelling.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Often based on presentation and clinical history.
    • General anesthesia, stifle joint mobility assessment and radiographs may be needed.
    • Positive drawer test made under sedation/anesthesia.
  • Treatment: 
    • Conservative: rest, exercise restriction and analgesia.
    • Surgical fixation in big enough patients and where finances allow.
  • Prognosis: poor to guarded, depends on degree of compromised mobility and pain regulation.
  • The anatomy of the guinea pig stifle is the same as in dogs.
  • The stability of the stifle joint can be assessed by testing anterior laxity using the cranial drawer test.
  • Trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament in the guinea pig often leads to osteoarthritis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Traumatic.
  • Secondary to co-morbidities, eg metabolic bone disease.
  • Idiopathic.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Inappropriate husbandry leading to injury, eg substrate used in enclosures.
  • Conformation, eg underlying osteoarthritis Arthritis/osteoarthritis.
  • Co-morbidities, eg metabolic bone disease.

Specific

  • Traumatic event.

Pathophysiology

  • Uncertain.
  • Partial rupture of the cruciate ligament with joint instability and stifle subluxations have been described.

Timecourse

  • Likely variable, from acute to progressive dependent on animal’s age and predisposing conditions such as osteoarthritis Arthritis/osteoarthritis.
  • Dependent on detection and familiarity of keeper with normal mobility in the species as well as frequency of monitoring, eg outdoor enclosures, hutches.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Anonymous (2009) Diagnosis: rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament. Lab Anim 38 (1), 10 PubMed.
  • Teeple R et al (2007) Coefficients of friction, lubricin, and cartilage damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient guinea pig knee. J Ortho Res 26 (2), 231-237 PubMed.
  • Jimenez P A, Harlan P M, Chavarria A E & Haimes H B (1995) Induction of osteoarthritis in guinea pigs by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament: Radiographic and histopathological changes. Inflam Res 44 (2), S129-S130 PubMed.

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