ISSN 2398-2985      

Coccidiosis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Intestinal coccidiosis, Eimeria caviae infection


Introduction

  • Cause: infection with Eimeria caviae.
  • Signs: watery diarrhea.
  • Diagnosis: fecal flotation, direct smear/wet mount.
  • Treatment: sulfadimidine or sulfamethazine, clean caging, alleviate overcrowding, supportive care including fluid therapy as needed, vitamin C supplementation.
  • Prognosis: good if dehydration prevented.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Eimeria caviae infection.
  • E.caviae is a typical coccidian protozoa.
  • Transmission is by ingestion of sporulated oocysts.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Stress.
  • Poor sanitation.
  • Overcrowding.

Specific

  • Breeding colony: stress.

Pathophysiology

  • E. caviae invades the host intestinal lining.
  • Following ingestion of sporulated oocysts the sporozoites penetrate the intestinal mucosa.
  • Schizogony can be found 7-8 days post-infection.
  • Endogenous stages occur in the cryptal cells of the anterior colon.
  • The cecum may also be involved.
  • Clinical signs of diarrhea are usually 10-13 days after ingestion.
  • The prepatent period is usually around 11 days, but severely affected cavies may succumb with profuse diarrhea before oocysts are found in the feces.
  • Time for sporulation of oocysts is 2-3 days up to 10 days.
  • Morbidity is usually high in a breeding colony or in a pet store where infected animals may be housed with poor sanitation and high stress.
  • Mortality is seen in severe cases and particularly in young, stressed cavies.

Timecourse

  • 10-13 days after ingestion.

Epidemiology

  • Infective oocysts passed in the feces.
  • Fecal-oral route of infection.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Johnson-Delaney C (2010) Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus and Duprasi. In: BSAVA Manual of Exotic Pets. 5th edn. Eds: Meredith A & Johnson-Delaney C. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. pp 28-62.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 236.
  • Hrapkiewicz K & Medina L (2007) Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine an Introduction. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing. pp 171.

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