ISSN 2398-2985      

Cholelithiasis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Gallstones


Introduction

  • Cause: cholelith within the gallbladder.
  • Signs: abdominal pain, reduced appetite, may have dyspnea due to pain. In referenced case, also had mildly distended abdomen. Intermittent vocalizations with the pain.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasonography, bloodwork, at surgery (identification of the cholelith), stone analysis.
  • Treatment: initial: pain alleviation. Surgery: cholecystectomy with removal of the stone.
  • Prognosis: good for recovery from surgery. Unknown as to whether stone(s) will form again. 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • Experimental use of the guinea pig as an animal model of cholelithiasis, hypercholesterolemia is induced using a cholesterol-supplemented diet:
    • Fatty infiltration of the liver.
    • Anemia.
    • Stone composed of weddellite (calcium oxalate dehydrate) and apatite (calcium phosphate).

Predisposing factors

General

  • Possibly obesity.

Pathophysiology

  • In one report guinea pig had a slightly enlarged liver, which returned to normal within 3 months of the surgery. Possibly due to ascending hepatitis or biliary stasis.
  • Hepatitis with bacterial infection has been associated with cholelithiasis in other species.

Timecourse

  • Unknown how long choleliths form.
  • Acute signs of pain.

Epidemiology

  • Individual problem.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bochmann M, Knell S, Dennler M, Grest P, Wenger S (2016) Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of cholelithiasis in a pet guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). J Exot Pet Med 25 (4), 327-331 ExoticPetMed

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