ISSN 2398-2985      

Cervical lymphadenitis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): CL, Cervical lymphadenitis due to Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Cervical lymph node abscess, lumps


Introduction

  • Cause: infection most commonly due to Streptococcus zooepidemicus, but may also be due to Streptobacillus moniliformes or other Streptococcus spp.
  • Signs: swelling and abscessation of cervical lymph nodes.
  • Diagnosis: culture from affected lymph nodes
  • Treatment: complete excision of affected nodes, drainage, lavage, systemic antibiotic therapy preferably based on culture and sensitivity (fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfa, or parenteral aminoglycosides). In herd, cull affected.
  • Prognosis: guarded as it is difficult to control.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • A beta-hemolytic, Gram-positive, encapsulated, Lancefield's Group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus is most often involved.
  • Less commonly found: Streptobacillus moniliformis or other Streptococcus spp.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Poor husbandry.
  • General stress factors that may induce immunosuppression.
  • Biting between animals.
  • Traumatic effect from dental disease (overgrown teeth) Dental disease, coarse dietary roughage which may cause small abrasions in the oral cavity.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Usually acquired through cutaneous wounds, less commonly via aerosols, or genital route.
  • May be acquired through oral cavity small abrasions caused by sharp or coarse foods such as hay, oats.
  • After penetration, Streptococcus spp is transported via the lymphatics to the draining regional cervical lymph nodes.
  • Proliferates in the lymph nodes.
  • Nasal mucosa and conjuntiva may be sites for entry that then result in cervical lymphadenitis (particularly young guinea pigs).

Timecourse

  • Variable.

Epidemiology

  • May spread throughout a herd, particularly in a breeding colony.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Tully T N (2011) Cervical Lymphadenitis. In: Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. Ed: Oglesbee B L. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 240-242.
  • Harkness J E, Turner P V, VandeWoude S &, Wheler C L (2010) Harkness and Wagener's Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 5th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, pp 382-383.
  • Hrapkiewicz K & Medina L (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine an Introduction. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing. pp 167.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2007) Guinea Pigs. In: Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. 3rd edn. Eds: Percy D H & Barthold S W. Blackwell Publishing. pp 217-251.
  • Harkness J E, Murray K A, Wagner J E (2002) Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs. In: Laboratory Animal Medicine. 2nd edn. Eds: Fox J G, Anderson L C, Loew F M, Quimby F W. Academic Press. pp 203-246.

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