ISSN 2398-2985      

Arthritis/osteoarthritis

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Osteoarthrosis


Introduction

  • Cause: may be multi-factorial:
  • Signs:
    • Lameness.
    • Reluctance to move.
    • Pain on joint manipulation.
    • Swelling of the joints.
    • Crepitus upon joint flexion/extension.
    • Bruxism, dental disease, anorexia if temporo-mandibular joint involved.
  • Diagnosis: radiographs, CT scans.
  • Treatment: palliative.
  • Prognosis: is slowly progressive.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Arthritis to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • If ulcerative pododermatitis Pododermatitis, inflammation and secondary bacterial infection may extend into foot joints.
  • May be consequence of aging.
  • May be consequence of vitamin C deficiency Vitamin C deficiency.
  • Unknown etiology of osteoarthrosis and cartilage degeneration of young guinea pigs.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Aging.
  • Obesity.
  • Lack of exercise.
  • Husbandry problems such as wire cage bottoms without bedding, coarse bedding, poor sanitation allowing wet/soiled bedding to accumulate on feet.
  • Diet problems: lack of good fiber for tooth health, proper chewing.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • With pododermatitis, inflammation and secondary bacterial infection invades joints of the feet; changes in gait because of this may alter leg joint function and cause irregular joint wear.
  • Osteoarthrosis and spontaneous cartilage degeneration in young guinea pigs: unknown cause.
  • Vitamin C deficiency alters collagen health and thus affects cartilage formation and integrity; calcium metabolism may also be affected. Hemorrhage into joints due to defective collagen in blood vessel walls.
  • Whether dental disease is primary or a sequela to arthritis in the temporo-mandibular joint, changes in chewing changes the mechanics of the joint, which can lead to further damage.
  • Instability in a joint often initiates/contributes to arthritis formation. This may be seen with aging, injury.

Timecourse

  • Slow onset.

Epidemiology

  • For osteoarthrosis, cartilage degeneration in young guinea pigs, unknown if genetic factors are involved.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.

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