ISSN 2398-2985      

Anal impaction

6guinea pig

Synonym(s): Fecal impaction, Perineal sac impaction, Rectal impaction, Circumanal skin fold impaction, Anal fold dermatitis


Introduction

  • Cause: fecal matter along with sebaceous secretions accumulate in perineal sac so that the material appears as a large 'plug'.
  • Signs: accumulation of material at the 'anal' opening, odoriferous.
  • Diagnosis: visual examination.
  • Treatment: removal of the impacted material via warm saline irrigation or cotton buds softened with saline and/or mineral oil.
  • Prognosis: depends on management.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Secretions from both the sebaceous gland and the perineal gland (located within the perineal sac in the circumanal skin fold). Fecal matter along with sebaceous secretions accumulate in the perineal sac so that the material appears as a large 'plug'.
  • Both glands are more developed in males than females.
  • Secretions from these are deposited during the perineal drag a behavior pattern in which an animal moves its perineal region across a surface to deposit olfactory communication via scent marking.
  • More commonly done by males. More commonly noted in group situations.
  • Odor is from urine and bacteria.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Obesity.

Specific

  • Intact boar.

Pathophysiology

  • The perineal scent gland is testosterone dependent.
  • The sebum produced increases at 4-5 weeks of age as puberty ensues.
  • Production also depends on rank within a herd: dominant males produce more sebum.
  • Anus is actually inside the perineal sac in guinea pigs, although the opening is usually just referred to as the 'anus'.

Timecourse

  • Gradual.

Epidemiology

  • Dominant males in a herd or household produce more sebum.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Donnelly T M (2013) Perineal Sac Impaction or Rectal Impaction. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor Birds and Exotic Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier. pp 271-272.
  • Hawkins M G & Bishop C R (2012) Disease Problems of Guinea Pigs. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier. pp 295-310.
  • Harkness J E, Turner P V, Vandewoude S & Wheler C L (2010) Harkness and Wagner’s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. 5th edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 212-213.
  • Hrapkiewicz K & Medina L (2007) Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine an Introduction. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing. pp 174.

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